A Short History of the Air Force Survival Knife

The genesis of the Air Force Survival Knife goes back to the 1950s at the dawn of the jet age. Here is the basic history of this knife.

June 21, 2018

Many of us have been exposed to the fixed blade knife known popularly as the Air Force Survival Knife. We have seen it in outfitter stores, marketed on the internet, and may even have owned one. Possibly, some may have had one issued to them while serving in the military. This knife has been around for many years. It used to be a standard piece of gear for anyone, including backpackers, who was a serious outdoorsman and wilderness adventurers back in the 1970s and 1980s, before the Rambo movies made popular the Rambo-type survival knife. I became curious about the background and history of this knife about a year ago. It was enlightening to discover that there is very little information available on the background and origins of this knife. Most of the information that I have collected about the knife comes from blogs and knife forums on the internet. After vetting the information against the published government standards for this knife and the government procurement process, what emerged was a unique story of an iconic knife that has found its way from the military to the civilian outdoor world and into the hearts of many owners and users.

Origins Of A New Survival Knife for Military Aircrews

Robin Olds Survival Knife2The genesis of the Air Force Survival Knife goes back to the 1950s at the dawn of the jet age. The U.S. Defense Department published to private industry requirements for a standardized fixed blade knife to issue to pilots and aircrews of the various service branches. Before this requirement, knives of several types were procured by the individual branches of the military and dispensed to their members. By contrast, the current DoD procurement process is much more refined and regulated. Thus, the current standards, methods, and procedures were not necessarily applicable to the procurement process that brought this knife into existence. As such, finding a definitive history of the development and procurement of this knife is difficult to reconstruct. It is assumed that such information resides in the archives of the companies that have manufactured the knife as well as the files of the DoD. However, based on the information that I have collected, vetted, and coupled with my own experience with the DoD procurement and testing process, here is the basic history of this knife.

The story of this knife seems to begin in 1953, when the DoD announced to private industry their specifications for a standardized survival knife for pilots to interested vendors in Military Specification MIL-K-8662 (16 October 1953). Companies interested in gaining the government contract received these requirements and submitted proposals for consideration based on those requirements. As the development and testing process began to take shape, updates to the original specification documents were published. The 1954 update calls for the knife to have a sharpened clip point blade and an additional rivet to the sheath. That same year, the Marble-Arms Corporation (now known as Marble’s®) began work on designing their prototype for the survival knife based on the government specifications. In 1957, the Marble-Arms Corporation submitted to the U.S. government a design based on their Ideal Hunting Knife design. This design was accepted, and the military specifications documents were updated to reflect Marble’s concept in MIL-K-8662A (04 November 1957). This military specification document would become the standard for further improvements and changes to the pilot survival knife throughout the years.

Marble produced several thousand knives for field testing and delivered them to the U.S. Air Force between 1957-1959. After the completion of testing and bidding competition between Marble, Camillus Cutlery, and the Ontario Knife Company (OKC), Camillus was awarded the contract to supply the new Jet Pilot Survival Knife (JPSK) to the Department of Defense instead of Marble. Camillus produced the knife with a 6-inch blade from 1959-1961. In 1961, updates to the military specifications called for a 5-inch blade. Camillus produced the Jet Pilot Survival Knife with a 5-inch blade from 1961-2006. It appears that in 2006, Ontario Knife Company became the current vendor to the DoD of the Jet Pilot Survival Knife under the National Stock Number (NSN): 7340-00-098-4327. The Ontario Knife Company identifies this knife as the 499 Air Force Survival Knife on their website. Additionally, OKC is the only company selling this knife commercially.

The Air Force Survival Knife Introduced to the Commercial Market

The Air Force Survival Knife was introduced to the commercial market by Marble after not being awarded the DoD contract to supply the new survival knife to the military. The reason behind Marble selling their knife to the general public was due, in part, to pre-maturely manufacturing several thousand knife blades and parts in advance of learning who would be awarded the government contract to supply the knives to the military. To recuperate some of the money that they had spent producing blades and knife components, Marble offered a civilian version of the knife to the public in 1961. Their commercial version of the survival knife had a polished blade instead of a subdued or blued blade, brass guard, and polished pommel. These knives became popular with outdoorsman. Later, after service members began returning from Vietnam, the military-grade issued knives began to be seen on the market. Currently, the military-grade Air Force Survival Knife is only manufactured and sold by the Ontario Knife Company.

Design Features for the Air Force Survival Knife

The primary document that describes the various features of the Air Force Survival Knife is Military Specification MIL-K-8662 (16 October 1953). Over the decades, this document has been updated. The current edition of this document is Aerospace Standard SAE-AS-8662. However, the essential features of the knife have remained constant throughout the life of the knife. What are the unique features of the Air Force Survival Knife, as outlined in the U.S. Government specifications?

Basic Description:

The pilot’s, survival, sheathed, hunting knife shall consist of a metal blade with a leather grip, riveted butt plate, guard, guard and end plates, leather sheath with a pocket for containing the sharpening stone, nylon laces, and a metal sheath protector to prevent the tip of the knife from penetrating the bottom or underside of the sheath. The intended use of the knife is for pilots as required in survival situations.

The Blade:

  • The blade is to be a “through tang” blade blanked from AISI 1095 steel conforming to MIL-S-8665 Steel Bars, Carbon, AISI 1095, Aircraft Quality.
  • The blade will be tempered to a Rockwell Hardness of C50-C55
  • The cutting blade is to be 5 1/8 inches long and 3/16 inches thick.

The Sheath:

  • The sheath shall be made of leather in compliance with Federal Standard KK-L-271 Leather, Cattlehide, Strap, Vegetable Tanned.
  • The sheath leather shall be 8/64-inch-thick
  • The sheath welt shall be 3/8-inch-thick and 2 ½ inches in length.

The Handle Grip:

  • The grip will be made of leather in compliance with Federal Standard KK-L-165 Leather, Cattlehide, Vegetable Tanned and Chrome Retanned; Impregnated and Soles.
  • The leather for the grip will be cut into washers, 1/8 inch in thickness.
  • The leather will be treated with para-nitrophenol fungicide.
    • Paranitrophenol fungicide:
      Paranitrophenol was first registered in the United States in 1963 as a fungicide incorporated into leather products and hides as a preservative. A second fungicidal product was registered in 1967. Both products contained a second active ingredient, salicylanilide. However, the registrations for all registered products containing salicylanilide as an active ingredient have been canceled. Currently, one pesticide product is registered to contain para-nitrophenol as an active ingredient. This registration, granted in 1980, is for use of paranitrophenol as a fungicide incorporated into leather for military use, at a concentration not to exceed 0.7% on the basis of dry finished leather weight. In 1983, this registration was amended to add the use of the product for incorporation into cork insulation for military use.

The Sharpening Stone:

  • The sharpening stone shall be fabricated from silicon carbide, grain size 280, hardness P, vitrified bond.
  • The sharpening stone size shall be 3 inches long, 7/8-inch-wide, and 1/4 inch thick.

Some Comments on the Design Features of the Air Force Survival Knife

The Air Force Survival Knife was designed to meet a particular requirement for the military. As such, this knife was not intended as a frontiersman or bushcraft knife, per se. The design features for this knife came about through various inputs from servicemembers, survivability researchers, and training developers. Moreover, the requirement for having a standard survival knife for pilots and aircrews across the DoD was due to economic considerations and budgeting constraints at the time which fostered standardization across the military services. Furthermore, standardization of equipment reduces costs upon the logistical system. These influences upon the procurement system tempered the DoD design features of the knife.

Additionally, the jet age in military aviation increased the number of gear pilots and aircrews had to carry on their flights. Thus, finding ways of reducing the bulk of the Aviation Life Support Equipment (ALSE) assisted in the overall weight considerations for flying. Consequently, the knife blade being reduced from six inches to five inches allowed it to retain some of the qualities necessary to carry out survival tasks, but small enough that it could be easily stowed on an aircrewman’s vest without causing interference for aircrews trying to carry out their duties while flying.

In particular, some questions that arise with this knife are those regarding two specific features of the knife: the saw-toothed spine and the two holes in the handguard. The serrated spine on this knife is part of the functional requirements for this knife. One of the tasks that this knife was designed to accomplish was helping pilots and aircrews egress their downed aircraft or to help first responders extract them from their downed aircraft. The serrated spine was designed to cut through the aluminum skin surrounding the airframes of Korean and Vietnam War-era aircraft. The sharpened clip point on the blade allows the pilot to punch a hole in the aluminum then use the knife spine as a hasty saw to cut through the aircraft skin during an aircraft egress situation.

Additionally, synthetic composite materials like Kevlar had not been fully integrated into aircraft construction until the late 1970s and 1980s. Thus, this knife became obsolete for its original intended use when the majority of military aircraft incorporated composite materials. However, it was still adequate for survival situations and therefore remained in the Federal Supply System.

The second question that arises concerning some of the features of this knife is the purpose of the two holes in the blade guard. As best as can be ascertained, the two holes are used as lashing points for cordage for survival tasks in the field, such as creating a hasty spear. However, there is not enough information in the literature to determine with certainty the purpose of the holes. As with many uses of military equipment, service members use considerable ingenuity in the field when employing their equipment and therefore, the use of the holes in the blade guard for cordage lashing points may have been a field expedient use of the knife rather than as an intentionally designed purpose. So, as stated earlier, the archives of Marble or the DoD may reveal conclusively if the reason for the holes in the handguard.

Further Developments of the Air Force Survival Knife

In the early 2000s, the U.S. Army published requirements to private industry for an aviation survival knife to replace the aging Air Force Survival Knife. As a result, the Ontario Knife Company developed a prototype based on the 1957 design that was first submitted by Marble. Ontario’s model became the Aircrew Survival and Egress Knife, System (ASEK) based on the published requirements by the U.S. Army. Ontario’s knife became procured by the U.S. Army and was issued a National Stock Number, NSN: 1095-01-530-0833 within the Federal Supply System. However, this was not the end of the aging Air Force Survival Knife. It is currently still in inventory with the DoD through the GSA. As a further development on the Air Force Survival Knife, the Ontario Knife Company offers a second-generation civilian version of the knife in its Special Purpose SP® series of knives. It is the SP 2, Survival Knife.

Some Concluding Thoughts

The Air Force Survival Knife has had a storied, yet obscure, history. The knife has been in continuous service with the Department of Defense for over sixty years. The iconic design features of the knife, that have characterized its look, have remained unchanged since its inception. This is a testimony to the ingenuity of the design team that developed the knife at the Marble’s company. As well, it must be remembered that this knife was designed to address a specific need for the U.S. military and was not intended to be used outside of that context. However, because of Marble’s premature manufacturing of the knife before it was awarded a government contract, the rest of the world gained the privilege to own this knife.

The Air Force Survival Knife will be around for a very long time. Even if the Ontario Knife Company discontinues their production and the DoD phases them out of their inventories, the knife will be around for commercial purchase. Surplus stores will purchase them in bulk through U.S. Government auctions, collectors will buy them at auctions, military museums will display them, and they will continue to be available for purchase on the internet. It is also suspected that knife makers will begin to find ways to improve the knife and manufacture their versions of the knife similar to what knife companies are doing with other legacy knife designs.

The journey of this iconic knife has been exciting to discover. I own one as a backup knife for my backpacking, outdoor, and emergency needs. The Air Force Survival Knife is an excellent knife. Those who do not currently own one should purchase one. It will not be long before you are won over by the versatility and practicality of the Air Force Survival Knife.

The Original Design Proposal Submitted by Marble for a Pilot’s Survival Knife


Advertisement for the Camillus Air Force Survival Knife
The Marbles Commercial Pilot Survival Knife



The OKC Aircrew Survival and Egress Knife (ASEK) System


The OKC SP 2 Air Force Survival Knife

Author: Major Hykr

Major Hykr is my blog site to chronicle my hiking and backpacking experiences. Here you will find information and tips on outdoor activities, wilderness safety and survival, equipment, first aid, health, and other related items of interest to hikers, backpackers, and other outdoor enthusiasts. Enjoy and See you on the trail!

51 thoughts on “A Short History of the Air Force Survival Knife”

  1. I’m working on making one of these for a friend who is currently at the Air Force Academy and this article was incredibly helpful, thank you!


    1. I just bought this knife from Ontario Knife Company. You mentioned the Ontario KNife Company briefly in the article. Can you say more about how Ontario played a role in the Survival Knife’s evolution ? I’ve read reviews that claim the new ones (from Ontario) are not as good. Any opinions?


    2. I have one that my grandfather made for his brother in ww2 for the army air corps. It was made from a spring off a model T. The sheath was made from a leather belt off a steam tractor. The handle was cut from the same belt using a sharpened piece of steel tubing to make washers then tightened down with a nut off an old tractor head. It looks exactly like the survival knife from the air force.


    1. There was a spin off copy cat comp. That sold this great knife with blade, hilt and butt blued. However it was a cheap copy of low quality steel!


  2. Thank you, this is a very informative treatise on this knife. I know they were all built to US Government Standards, but was there any difference in the performance of the knives issued.


      1. Well I got my first one from and Army Helicopter pilot in Germany 1963. I was in Boy Scouts. He was a family friend! I used it for Scouting till 1968. When I enlisted in 69 I got my next one from supply. I carried it for next 8 years on my. For the next 27 years it was in my Squad car or on my SWAT belt. It was used to open C-rations, cutting vines, skinning game and fish. Opening locked doors and smashing car windows. I would say its one of the best knives ever! Mine is an old C make still kept in my truck


  3. I am trying to find any information on a 7 inch U.S. Camillus. I have one but can’t find anything about it. Any information you could provide would be greatly appreciated.


  4. Hello,
    Interesting article. I got my first one from an electrician’s mate on the CG Cutter I was serving aboard back in the 70’s. Not an easy knife to resharpen and the very tip was prone to breaking off. I was wondering if you had run across anything about the dates on the pommel nut. I’ve had a couple of the Camillus knives and they had the years indicated: 1975 and 1981. I recently bought a new Ontario that has 3-11 on the pommel (March 2011 I reckon). I also picked up another old Camillus that has no dates on it whatsoever. That latest acquisition also had a sheath lacking the metal back and tip of the sheath, but appears original in all respects. The tip of the sheath is pointed and the back part of leather extends beyond the front for two lanyard holes. The back piece has also been cut-through by the blade over the years, so the metal addition was definitely needed. I’m assuming the knife is an earlier production but, as it’s a 5 inch blade, it has to be after 1961. Any information is appreciated.
    Bruce Mergele, QMC, USNR-Retired


    1. Hi Bruce:
      I apologize for the delay in responding to your question. The knife went through a couple of different vendors over its life cycle. Not sure about the pommel stamping. Some companies marked them and some did not. The stamping was kind of inconsistent from my research.


    2. I have a Camillus USA 5″ fixed blade knife that was issued to me between 1964-1965 as a flight crew member in Patrol Squadron 8, VP-8 Anti submarine warfare squadron. It is well preserved and stored away since my discharge in 1966. The bolt end of the handle is unmarked. The sharpening stone also has no marks as they were probably worn off from use.
      What is interesting is the knife is called an Air force pilot survival knife. I have never heard it being issued in the Navy but can say without a doubt many all of us flight crew members were issued one. We were allowed to keep them when dicharged. If you send me your email address I can send you photos.


  5. I’m interested in finding out about what I believe is not a USAF Pilot Survival Knife, but may in fact be an Asian made imitation. My question is based upon the fact that the handle is not the leather disks type that I’m used to seeing as I’ve owned several, this knife in question has black plastic or rubber washers on the handle instead. The Leather washers may have been replaced with the black ones. I haven’t had the opportunity to measure it as it’s not in my possession and never was, I simply saw it. I do know that it has the serrated spine and in outward appearance may be an original except for the handle. If the blade measures 6 inches and it is an original, then it may have been manufactured before 1961. But if it’s an Asian imitation then it’s hard to determine when it was made. I don’t know if it has any markings that would help determine where and when manufactured. I may be wrong but it may have been produced between 1970-1990, maybe in Asia. Do you have any information on this kind of knife ever being produced?


    1. Hi Wilfredo,
      You are correct. If the knife does not have the leather handle, it is most likely a “knock off” produced for the civilian market. This happens quite often. Another possibility, is that a previous owner modified the knife after it was issued or purchased. I hope this helps.


  6. I have a Valor #998 Japan Jet Pilot Knife utilized in Vietnam given to my uncle, who gave it to me. I have little knowledge on the Use of it in Vietnam, that said, I cant find much details. Most knives I seen are marked 10998 or some other number not marked on my blade.
    Any Further Details or assistance is greatly appreciated


    1. Valor is the name of the US company that retailed the 998. It is a Japanese made copy of the US Air Force Survival knife and was sold through the US military exchanges. Many GIs bought these knives and carried them during the war in Vietnam, including my father, who bought on in the exchange in Takhli, Thailand, and wore it during missions over North Vietnam. As late as the ’80s and ’90s, Japanese made copies of the MK2 “KABAR” and the Air Force Survival Knife were sold in exchanges around the globe. I have a MK2 copy that I bought in the US Army AAFES exchange in West Germany in the mid-1980s.


  7. I believe the two holes in the blade guard was to dummy cord the knife. I have a one of the knives that came out of a survival kit. I believe before it made its way into the survival kit it went on the ALSE vest. The one I have comes with a green pouch that went on the vest and the leather sheath was sewn into the pouch. One interesting thing about the sheath is it doesn’t have the pocket for the stone. Also it is not cut to put on a belt.

    The dummy cord is tied on a hole at the blade guard and then it is sewn in the green pouch. Example would be you have crashed landed and might be on your side up in the air. You need to get the knife out to cut your way out. But you have an injury to your arm. You pull the knife out but drop it. You are able to get the knife because it is dummy corded to you.


  8. I own one of these knives and recently became interested in it’s history when one was found in a japanese built WWII tunnel system in a mountain in Northern Luzon, Philippines. While researching this knife I discovered that Camillus, the same manufacturer as the iconic Kabar fighting knife, was the main producer of these knives. Curiously enough, my knife does not have the Camillus trademark name stamp anywhere on the knife or the sheath. It does, however, have a small “Japan” stamped in the blade at the hilt. If you would like, I could send you a photo of this knife. It may add to your history file. In all other ways, it totally resembles the pilots survival knife distributed to the military in the 1950’s. Thanks for your work. Entertaining and informing.


      1. I have several good photos of the knife which I’d be happy to forward but there doesn’t seem to be a way to send them to you on this site. I’m not a fan of social media and don’t use it. If you have some method to receive photos, let me know and I’ll forward the photos.


      2. Dear Major,I have had this knife for 30 years when I picked one up at local sporting goods store ,it served me well but, sadly had it stolen a few years ago….my question is how to safely (without too much damage to tang or butt plate (large nut square hole) to change handle ? Thank you…


    1. I, too, have one that has a small “Japan” stamped on the blade at the hilt. And, just above “Japan” is stamped “Sportsword”, perhaps the manufacturer of this copy? I am 63 yo and have had this knife since I was a teenager. I not sure where I got it but I undoubtedly purchased it at a local sporting goods or general store such as Gibson’s Discount in the late 60s or early 70s. I also have the original sheath though the front pocket and stone have disappeared.


  9. Appreciating the persistence you put into your site and in depth information you provide. It’s nice to come across a blog every once in a while that isn’t the same old rehashed material. Wonderful read! I’ve bookmarked your site and I’m including your RSS feeds to my Google account.


  10. I sent some pictures I have of mine, Major.
    The Newer one is by Camillus the older one I got given to by my uncle, who got it from someone in Vietnam.


  11. Thank you for the history. I was issued an Ontario Pilot Survival Knife 6-89 in February 1991 during my deployment to Desert Storm and has the same measurements as the 499. Do you have any additional information on what the 6-89 is and how it fits in the history.


  12. As a flight equipment Marine. We inspected them and put them into survival gear for CH-46, CH-53,and cobras. I assume was the same for my brethren in the fixed wing as well. These were in issue up to 2000 as for as I’m aware. Beyond that I do not know if they were swapped out.


  13. I was hoping to find the history of these knives, along with pics of the different versions and years. Mine is a well-worn obviously military example, with a grey pommel top and worn leather sheath with steel tip. No date or manufacturer is stamped anywhere.


  14. I have three of these babies from my flying days with the U. S. Navy. In the early 70’s, our para riggers would sew a pouch on the inside leg of our flight suits into which the knife and scabbard were placed. Later, when we received individual survival and flotation gear, the knife scabbard was sometimes sewn into the pocket where a .38 special was stored during Vietnam days on the survival vest.

    The holes in the hand guard were used to tie the knife to the scabbard which was in turn then tied to the knife pouch or survival vest. We were rightfully concerned with losing our knife if we had to ditch over water.

    Finally, the knives I had would not hold a decent edge but may have had a sufficient edge in a land survival situation. That said, I did cut down a Christmas tree (about 3-4 inches in diameter once).


  15. Maybe you can help me out here. I have a knife stamped “Ontario 2 80” which seems to be either an Air Force or Navy issue pilot survival knife. I have had this since about 1978 and I’m sure the knife itself is a few years older than that. I have no idea how long it had been sitting there. It was probably stashed there by some kid whose dad was a Navy pilot. Maybe a high school classmate possibly but I don’t know. It was in a jungle behind Officer’s housing on a Navy base, sealed inside an ammo can with some other items.

    It looks exactly like the type of knife I pull up in a Google search. I always assumed it was a Marine issued Kabar knife. There were of course Marines stationed on the base. Anything you can tell me about its history? I can’t glean a date of manufacture from the stamp. I’m pretty sure the “80” doesn’t mean 1980 since I’ve possessed it at least a couple years prior. I suspect it is Vietnam era from its condition. I have the knife and sheath, but not the sharpener. The condition of the leather sheath is what would one would expect to be from late 1960’s to early 1970’s vintage as it was found at the time, which has not degraded since. The condition of the knife is worn, but otherwise good. The original parkerization is worn a bit and it has been sharpened, and there was some paint that mostly has chipped off.

    Not looking to sell it. I just want to know its history. It isn’t worth that much plus its actually a pretty good knife. Held off rust well, and it is pretty solid.


  16. Thanks for the info major. Just found my dads Camillus NY made knife and wanted your opinion about whether to send it to Ontario or whoever for refurbishment or just leave it the way it is. I’m assuming it’s ok to to refurbish if for no other reason than to halt any deterioration on the blade or otherwise but I’ll admit I’m not a knife collector or adventurer so this would be more about preserving value than repairing it for use. I will send you pics if you want but the condition is probably average or less but that’s a guess. It has a decent leather scabbard with no hole in the tip and leather cords intact, as well as the stone with similar markings as others I’ve seen. The blade is very sharp but has surface deterioration and the guard seems rather dull. The bolt has a chip near the center so maybe it was well used as a hammer. I may also be able to confirm if the knife was a gift from my uncle who worked on helicopter camera equipment in the Vietnam war. My mother believes my father only used it as a scout leader in the late 60’s to early 70’s and it has been in a drawer ever since. Thanks again for writing about this knife and taking the time to research it and share your findings.


Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s

%d bloggers like this: