Major Hykr is my blog site to chronicle my hiking and backpacking experiences. Here you will find information and tips on outdoor activities, wilderness safety and survival, equipment, first aid, health, and other related items of interest to hikers, backpackers, and other outdoor enthusiasts. Enjoy and See you on the trail!
Hiking with your family can be a great time outdoors. Here is what I learned.
Hiking with your family can be a great time outdoors. Children love being outside. Recently, my wife wanted us to go hiking near where we live. The trail was a heavily used unimproved service road that wound around the mountains near our home. I thought that it would be a good opportunity to teach our two oldest children about hiking and backpacking. In that process, what was normally second nature to me, had to be slowed down and methodically articulated and each preparatory task thought through. Here is what I learned:
Lessons Learned From Hiking With Family
1. Kids get tired of carrying their backpacks more quickly than you are expecting. I ended up hand-carrying their little packs on the return leg of our hike back to our car.
2. Kids like to get into their backpacks and play with all of those essential items that have been put together for them (e.g. whistles, multi-tools, flashlights, snacks, etc.).
3. Backpack weight has be considered. Carrying weight has to be something that a person needs to get used to. This is especially true for children and their backpacks. Even though I thought my kid’s backpacks were light, their little back muscles and shoulders became fatigued carrying the weight on their backs much sooner than was anticipated.
4. If you have an infant, someone has to have a child carrier instead of a stroller. My wife wanted to use a stroller for our infant son. However, the trail was unimproved and had some steep areas along the way. This made pushing the stroller more physically demanding that would have been if one of us was using a child-carrier.
5. Kids will sunburn more easily, become dehydrated more easily, and will lose interest in the hike more quickly that you are anticipating.
Suggestions For Hiking With Your Family
Here are some suggestions to consider if you have never been hiking or backpacking with your family or have not been outdoors with your family in a while.
1. Do not put things in your children’s backpacks that you do not want them to get into. If you can, carry those items with you. During rest breaks, teach them about each of the items that you are carrying for them.
2. Carry extra water and food in your pack for your children.
3. Be mindful of the weight of the children’s backpacks. They cannot carry as much weight as you might think.
4. If you use a child-carrier, then the spouse that can carry the extras for the children will have to carry them in their pack.
5. Do not overload your own back to carry extras. I have arthritis in my back, so I have to be careful about how much weight I am putting on my body, so that there are no spasms or cramps during the hike. This means that some items will have to be left home or in the vehicle.
6. Have realistic expectations of yourself, your spouse, and your children. If you or your spouse are not in shape to conduct a multi-day hike, or your children have little or no experience with hiking or backpacking, do not attempt a large and complicated hike. Start with short hikes and work your family up to being able to hike a multi-day hike. It is easy to take on more than you or your family are ready for by being overconfident in your knowledge, abilities, or physical fitness.
7. As always, have an emergency plan. Children can get hurt out there just like you. Have a plan on how to deal with emergencies (i.e. physical injuries, sickness, bites, allergic reactions, etc.).
8. Finally, always tell someone what you are doing, where you are going and what time you will return. Provide them a map with indicated waypoints along with your cell/smart phone number and emergency points of contact like U.S. Park Ranger Stations, etc.
Some Final Thoughts
The outdoors can be a lot of fun for your family. Children love adventure and seeing all of the new things that are presented by the outdoors satisfies those curiosities. However, safety has to be the operative word when taking your family on the trail. Little feet get tired, little backs get fatigued, your spouse gets as physically tired as you do and needs a break. Therefore, every precaution should be considered before leaving for even a few hours in the wilderness. As one Oregon family discovered, you can get lost just going out to pick wild berries. So, be prepared at all times, especially, when young children are included in the outdoor adventure.
If you are safe and thoughtful, hiking with your family can bring a lifetime of fond memories and an appetite for more outdoor fun. There is nothing like watching your young children get excited about a seeing a deer in the distance or a butterfly suddenly fly past unexpected. Hiking and backpacking are a great way to enjoy nature, get some physical exercise, and develop family relationships. Therefore, do not hesitate to enjoy a little outdoor recreation with your family on the hiking trail.
There are 8 tips for trekking on unfamiliar terrain to consider when planning your next outdoor adventure. Even the well-experienced hikers can get lost and in trouble on the trail just as quickly as novices.
There are 8 tips for trekking on unfamiliar terrain to consider when planning your next outdoor adventure. An Associated Press story about a hiker from the state of Virginia who was found dead after going missing on a day hike in Mexico on December 30, 2014 provides some helpful insights on hiking on unfamiliar terrain.
First, the positive aspects of the story inform us that person did have a communication plan. He sent a selfie picture to his wife and then a couple of hours later sent a text message. This was probably very helpful information that aided the Mexican Search and Rescue (SAR) teams find his body.
However, two important pieces of information from this article that were revealed was that the man did not have any survival training and that he had gotten lost while on day hikes in his past. The story goes on to relate that he was able to self-recover from being lost on previous occasions; however, this time he was in a foreign country and navigating on unfamiliar terrain. What are some key learning elements from this story regarding hiking on unfamiliar terrain whether you are hiking in the United States or abroad?
1. Establish A Plan
First, have a plan. That means you need to have a plan for conducting your hike from start to finish. Planning your hike must involve determining your route, your expected time of return to your starting point, establishing way points on your GPS if you are using one. There should be an integration of an emergency plan should you get lost or injured while hiking. You should ensure that you have adequate food and water for the area, time on the trail, and time of year. Now the question arises as to how you plan the actual hike upon terrain upon in which you have never traversed.
2. Conduct A Map Reconnaissance
The first step in planning a hike on unfamiliar terrain is to consult a map. With the advent of iPads, Tablets, and GPS devices, Google Earth, topographic terrain applications are available for most of these devices. If you cannot afford the electronic stuff, there are paper maps that can be purchased. If you cannot find a map that covers your area of interest prior to your trip, you can buy a map at your intended location once you have arrived. Another way to get information on the terrain upon which you are unfamiliar is to do an internet search. There is no reason why you cannot get some idea of the terrain you wish to hike if you are hiking anywhere in North America or Europe. Asia, Central and South America, and Africa may present some challenges in regards to obtaining information, but it is not impossible.
3. Conduct A Risk Assessment
Conducting a risk assessment of your planned outdoor adventure is critical to a safe hike. It is essential to understand the risks of the area and incorporate risk mitigation into your plan. There are several ways to conduct a risk assessment. The simplest is to take a piece of paper and list the risks, such as dehydration, then under the risk, list ways to mitigate or control that risk, such as carrying a water treatment kit. The U.S. Army Composite Risk Management Worksheet is a useful tool for conducting a risk assessment for planning a backpacking trip on unfamiliar terrain.
4. Identify The Terrain Hazards
Generally, there are two types of hazards to consider on any hike, man-made and naturally occurring risks.
The naturally occurring hazards are the most likely to be encountered. Naturally occurring hazards encompass wild life, dangerous plants and insects, and weather. Your local bookstore, library, and outfitter store can provide information on the natural hazards pertaining to the area in which you desire to hike. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) website can provide accurate weather assessments for the area you wish to hike in the United States.
Another risk to consider when hiking over unfamiliar terrain are the man-made hazards that may exist on your route. Man-made hazards can be construction areas, logging areas, mining areas, or places of war, insurrection, or high crime areas. A hiker from North Carolina was recently killed by members of a drug cartel while he was hiking in Mexico. His story illustrates the importance of understanding the man-made hazards on a particular hike.
Travel Restrictions and Warnings
Another important aspect about man-made hazards to consider for hiking in foreign countries is to check and heed the warning and travel restrictions published by the U.S. State Department. Sometimes tourists in foreign country like to take a treks away from the places that are established for tourists. It is critical to understand and heed the travel restrictions issued by the U.S. State Department. We do not have perfect knowledge of any particular foreign area. Therefore, it is imperative to integrate our government’s travel restrictions and warnings into any trek that will transpire in a foreign country.
5. Establish and Publish An Emergency Plan
Another planning consideration in regards to hiking on unfamiliar terrain is to plan for emergencies. I have watched several documentaries about mountain climbing, hiking, and endurance races. Most of the unfortunate incidences discussed in these programs center on the fact that the individuals affected were not prepared for emergencies. I have also read several news stories over the last few months where hikers had to be rescued who were lost or injured while hiking. Their testimony was that they were not anticipating any problems on their hike. The take away principle from the experiences of others is always prepare for the worst scenario that can happen on your hike. Never go on a hike, regardless of length of time or distance without an emergency plan.
6. Incorporate A Personal Emergency Survival Kit
Your emergency plan should incorporate a personal emergency survival kit. The kit should address the basic principles of survival: Shelter, Food, Fire, and Hydration. The best survival kit is the one that you develop on your own. There are several resources available that will help you understand how to build your own kit. Your personal survival kit should be tailored for your particular hike and for the time of the year in which you will be backpacking. The challenge for taking emergency survival gear into foreign countries for backpacking is the aspect of the survival knife. Consult the laws of the country in which you desire to travel regarding knives and multi-tools. It may be that you have to buy one of these items after you arrive in the country of your destination. There are some seasonal aspects to consider when building your survival kit.
7. Incorporate Seasonal Gear
One aspect of risk mitigation for trekking on unfamiliar terrain is to understand and incorporate seasonal gear into your packing list. You can not pack for every single contingency. Your backpack will be too heavy to carry if you try. Therefore, it is important to tailor your packing for the particular season and kind of terrain upon you will trek. This is called, modularity.
Summer/Fall Gear Considerations
At a minimum your backpack should have for a summer or early fall hike the following items: rain gear, such as a waterproof tarp or H2O proof outerwear. Wet weather will be the one weather hazard that you will encounter in most locations in the summer or fall in North America or Europe. Therefore, in addition to the basic survival kit items, consider some type of rain gear to put in your backpack. The temperatures will fluctuate as the earth transitions from summer to fall. It is beneficial to include some kind of light to medium cold weather gear, such as, a packable jacket and fleece cap. The Columbia Watertight II Jacket (Packable) is a great example of raingear for backpacking.
Winter/Spring Gear Considerations
Hiking in the winter to early spring brings its own weather risks. Cold weather gear should be part of your packing list if you are trekking during this time of the year. One type of winter gear to bring on a hike in the winter are snowshoes. The MSR EVO Ascent Snowshoes are an example of snowshoes for hiking. Hand and Body warmers should be a consideration for your packing list. Winter outerwear such as the Columbia Alpine Action Jacket with Omni-Heat technology is the kind of winter gear to consider putting on your packing list.
8. Get Formal Survival Training
Another aspect of the news article mentioned above was that the wife of the hiker reported that he did not have any survival training. This is unfortunate. As many resources, websites, and television programs that are available that cover survival, nobody should be without some kind of knowledge of the basics of survival.
In conclusion, hiking on unfamiliar terrain can be an exciting experience; however, failure to plan and anticipate problems increases the chances of a good hike turning bad. Stay on well-used paths and do not venture off into areas for a great selfie or a great view of the scenery. Remember that even the well-experienced hikers can get lost and in trouble on the trail just as quickly as novices. Therefore, stay informed, stay safe, have a plan, and enjoy your hike. See you on the trail!
The history of the U. S. Army Lensatic Compass is relatively unknown. Yet, the origins of the compass are interesting.
The U. S. Army lensatic compass is an iconic land navigation device. Its decades of use by the U. S. Army, Air Force, Marines, and SOF make this compass one the best ever produced. Furthermore, the history of this piece of military gear is relatively unknown. Much like the history of the Air Force Survival Knife, the background about the military lensatic compass is minimal. The compass is undoubtedly not the first to employ the lensatic sighting system. However, it did standardize the use of the lensatic sighting system. Yet, the origins of the compass are interesting.
The current version of the U. S. Army Lensatic Compass finds its roots in similar compass styles in use before World War II. The current lensatic compass is an evolution from the older hand-held sighting and surveyor’s compasses in use during the 19th and early 20th centuries. For example, on March 5, 1812, Charles Augustus Schmacalder, an optician and instrument maker, received a patent for his prismatic sighting compass design from the Royal Patent Office in London. His design is the first to feature a folding prismatic sighting mechanism that is similar to the one on the current military lensatic compass. The Schmacalder Compass was the standard prismatic compass in use by the British Army throughout the late 1800s and early 1900s before World War I.
Later, Colonel William Willoughby Cole Verner of the British Army improved Schmacalder’s design for a pocket compass. Verner’s compasses are sometimes referred to as marching compasses. These marching compasses were used for moving mounted and dismounted infantry units across the late 19th-century battlefield. Verner’s compasses are the first to look more like the modern military lensatic compass. It had a folding lid, folding wire sight, and folding prism eyesight. They were carried in a leather pouch that was attached to a British officer’s waist belt. Verner’s compass became the standard pocket field compass for the British Army throughout World War I.
The U. S. Army Needs A New Compass
The Pocket Watch-type Compass
By contrast, the pocket or hand-held compasses that were in use with the U. S. Army during World War I resembled modified pocket watches. The reason for this phenomenon is that most of the compasses in use by the U. S. Army during that era were manufactured by watch companies. Examples of such compasses are the Waltham Watch Company Pocket Compass. Cruchon & Emons of London and the Plan, Ltd of Neuchatel Switzerland also made pocket compasses for the U. S. Army during World War I. The C&E and Plan company pocket watches are early attempts at a mirrored pocket sighting compass.
The M-1938 Lensatic Compass
Undoubtedly, U. S. Army service personnel became aware of the Verner prismatic compasses while serving with their British counterparts in World War I. The Army authorized research and development projects to develop a new compass at the request of the U. S. Army’s Infantry School in Fort Benning. The first of these R&D projects for a new compass was issued on March 21, 1928. The agency responsible for the research and development of compasses for the U.S. Army, at that time, was The Engineering and Topographic Laboratories at Fort Belvoir, Virginia. Additional research projects were issued until 1938. Special Project 280 (SP-280) was authorized on October 21, 1938, to find a suitable commercial lensatic compass for the Infantry that met the Infantry School’s requirements. The Engineer Board did not discover a commercial compass that met the standards published by the Infantry School. However, two companies, The W. &L. E. Gurley Company and The Taylor Instrument Company offered to make new compass prototypes based on the Infantry School’s requirements. After the testing and modifications of their compasses, they were recommended for procurement in 1940. Both manufacturers supplied compasses to the U. S. Army during World War II. Their compasses were designated as the M-1938 Lensatic Compass.
The M-1950 Lensatic Compass
Liquid Filled Dampening
The U. S. Army continued to suggest improvements to the M-1938 lensatic compass throughout World War II. For example, there were several attempts to solve the mechanical dampening problem with the lensatic compass. In short, they were attempting to find ways to keep the compass needle from oscillating when taking a bearing. Reducing oscillation of the needle helps to gain a more accurate reading when taking an azimuth and bearing for land navigation. A liquid was commonly used for dampening in the lensatic compasses through most of World War II. The use of liquid dampening was a better option for the technology of the times. However, experimentation with the dampening process continued throughout the war.
According to Pennington, the Superior Magnetic Corporation discovered how to dampen the lensatic compass without using liquid through the employment of the induction dampening principle. Induction dampening uses the electromagnetic field to control needle oscillation instead of liquid. The compass well was made of copper which allowed the magnetic field to act as a dampener on needle movement. The company’s effort resulted in the lensatic and wrist compasses incorporating induction dampening by the middle of 1945. These new compasses were quickly procured and issued to military service personnel in the waning days of the war.
Standardizing The Lensatic Compass
In 1947, there was a renewed emphasis on developing a more standardized lensatic compass. The push for a more standardized and improved compass was part of a more extensive program of standardizing equipment across all of the services after World War II (see my article on the Air Force Survival Knife). The Taylor Instrument Company and the Brunson Instrument Company submitted prototype compasses that met the published specifications and standards by the U. S. Army. The Brunson compass was accepted, and the project for developing a new standardized lensatic compass was completed in 1952. The new lensatic compass was designated Compass, Magnetic, M-1950.
The Modern U. S. Army Lensatic Compass
The M-1950 Lensatic Compass is a design that is still in use by the various military services of the United States Department of Defense. Improvements and modifications have continued on the compass. However, the basic look, construction, and employment of the compass has mostly remained unchanged over its nearly seventy-year history. The government contract to supply the lensatic compass to the military has changed hands over the life cycle of the compass. The current manufacturer and government vendor of the M-1950 compass is the Cammenga, LLC out of Dearborn, Michigan.
The Cammenga Lensatic Compass
Cammenga produces two versions of the M-1950 compass for the U. S. Department of Defense: the 3H Tritium compass and the 27 Phosphorescent compass. The only real difference between these two compasses is the material used to meet the self-illuminating features required by the military standards. Cammenga also offers the compass in two magnetic orientations: northern hemisphere (needle points to the magnetic north pole) and southern hemisphere (needle points the magnetic south pole).
The U. S. Army Lensatic Compass has proven its value over the last sixty years. Its development can be traced to the first prismatic and pocket compasses of the nineteenth centuries. The endurance of the design and construction of the current lensatic compass is a testament to the innovative engineers at the Brunson Instrument Company. Cammenga carries on the high standards for the construction of the M-1950 compass. The M-1950 Lensatic compass is an essential piece of gear for those heading to the outdoors. It requires some practice in using it, especially in land navigation. However, one will not be disappointed by the U. S. Army Lensatic Compass.
For additional information see the following articles:
The Buck Knives® Omni Hunter™ 10pt knife is an ideal fixed-blade knife for hikers and backpackers. Let’s see why.
The Buck Knives® Omni Hunter™ 10pt knife is an ideal fixed-blade knife for hikers and backpackers. I was searching for a budget-friendly, fixed-blade knife that was more practical for backpacking rather than for bushcrafting, hunting, or tactical applications. Many kinds of knives function well on the trail. The Morakniv® Bushcrafter™ and Garberg™ are examples of such knives. However, I desired to find an American-made knife that has the characteristics that are useful to hiking or backpacking.
My searching for a good knife useful for hiking or backpacking led to a knife meeting specific criteria. The knife had to have the following features. The blade has to be one that is fixed and full-tang. The blade grind needs to be flat, scandi, or hollow. The blade material 420 HC stainless steel or better. The blade length can be no longer than 5.5 inches. The handle or scales must be durable in all kinds of terrain and weather. Additionally, the knife should be able to fit a belt-worn or MOLLE compatible sheath. Why should a knife have these criteria to make it compatible for backpacking?
Backpacking Knife Criteria
These knife features are best for hiking and backpacking due to personal field experience and the way knives are used on the trail. A fixed-blade and full-tang blade is the standard configuration for a field knife. There are many good reasons for this kind of knife configuration. Yet, for backpacking the main concern is safety. A fixed-blade knife does not have a locking mechanism that may fail under pressure like happens, at times, with a folding-blade knife. The blade grids are the easiest to keep sharp in the field with a pocket sharpener. A stainless steel blade does not rust under wet or humid conditions. Furthermore, this kind of knife is user-friendly to the recreational hiker or backpacker. Those serious about bushcraft, hunting, fishing, or survival preparedness will use more sophisticated and expensive knives.
The Buck Knives® Omni Hunter™ 10pt knife is listed by the manufacturer as a hunting knife. Its retail price is $48 on the company’s website. This price puts the knife in a category that is competitive with the Morakniv® and Ontario Knife Company® products. The total length of this knife is roughly 7 ¾ inches. It also comes with its own nylon sheath that can be worn on trouser belts two inches wide or less. What are the features of the Omni Hunter™ 10pt knife?
The blade length on this knife is 3⅜ inches in a centerline measurement from point to handle. Buck Knives® lists the blade length as 3¼ inches. This is the measurement of the cutting edge of the blade. The blade is ⅛ of an inch thick and 1⅝ inches wide. The knife is small for many in the outdoor community.
Blade shape of the knife is a drop point. The drop point style gives a knife blade more strength. It allows for heavier tasks like picking or prying. The form enables the knife to function effectively for general work applications, such as making feather sticks or notching tasks. The drop point helps to lower the risk of making accidental punctures when processing small or medium game. This blade is full bellied with a robust and thick point for more intense tasks.
Blade material for this knife is the 420HC stainless steel. 420HC is high carbon (HC) stainless steel that has excellent corrosion resistance and durability. One can easily sharpen the blade in the field. The edge stays reasonably well once sharpened. The blade is hardened to a Rockwell hardness of RC 58.
The blade grind for this knife is a hollow grind with a secondary bevel. This is the most common knife grind. The hollow grind on a knife blade is best suited for cutting flesh and soft woods. Since this knife is categorized as a hunting knife by the manufacturer, it is understood that the primary purpose for this knife is processing game. However, for a weekend backpacker or hiker, it is adequate for cutting cordage or textile materials, processing fish, processing fire tinder, or making small game traps (e.g., figure four or snare trap).
This knife has a unique blade spine. The blade has a curved 90° flat ground spine. The curve is shallow enough that it can be used to scrape a ferrocerium rod to make sparks for starting a campfire. The best place on the spine for striking sparks from a ferrocerium rod is just in front of the jimping. This is the technique that I use, and it works pretty consistently on the ferrocerium rod. The spine also has ¾ of an inch of jimping (notches) that start at the base of the handle. The spine notches enable holding the knife steady when doing carving tasks.
The Omni Hunter™ 10pt does not have handle scales. The knife handle is encased in thick Alcryn® Rubber. The handle material reduces slipping when in use in rainy conditions. The handle has an ergonomic curve that fits well in your hand. It also has notches on the underside handle curve for added grip. The knife handle also has a lanyard hole if one chooses to put in a lanyard.
This fixed-blade knife is outstanding for backpacking and hiking applications. It is not too large or too small for most people. People that wear large or extra-large gloves will have trouble with this knife. The Omni Hunter™ 12pt may be a better option for those will larger hands. However, it is perfect for those who wear small or medium size gloves. Moreover, you may want to use another sheath than the one that comes with the knife, such as a custom Kydex® sheath. Overall, this knife is one the best suited for backpacking and hiking. Those that prefer the Morakniv® products might enjoy putting this knife to test. As with any knife, the Omni Hunter™ 10pt is not for everyone. Yet, this knife is for you if you are looking for an American-made fixed-blade knife that can compete with your trusted Morakniv®.
Christmas is just around the corner. Here are my top five gift considerations for the backpacker on your Christmas list.
Christmas is just around the corner. As we enter the holiday season, Thanksgiving is next week. We all know that the day after Thanksgiving is Black Friday; that first official day of Christmas shopping. As we consider what to purchase for our backpacking friends, here are my top five gift considerations for the backpacker on your Christmas list.
The Warbonnet Outdoors Traveler Hammock
The Traveler Hammock by Warbonnet Outdoors is a simple, no frills, end-gathered design. This hammock is a lightweight packable solution to your hammock needs. It was designed for people on the go. It will fit conveniently in your multi-day backpack, emergency kit in your car, or in the saddlebags of your motorcycle. You can check out my full review of this hammock accompanied by a video review at the following links: Warbonnet Traveler Hammock Written Review Warbonnet Traveler Hammock Video Review
Raingear in a backpack can occupy a lot more space than a person might expect. Packable raingear is the best solution for saving space in your pack if you are anticipating rain. The best rain gear that I have discovered is the Columbia PFG Storm Rain Jacket. This jacket packs into its own pocket so it’s easy to carry and always ready. Moreover, Columbia’s PFG line of clothing are designed for the fisherman with UV protection infused into the fabric of their shirts, pants, and headgear. However, they are great products for backpacking also. This a bonus for those spending time outdoors on the trail. The PFG Storm Rain Jacket is a great compliment to the PFG line and is a great solution to your raingear needs as a backpacker.
Columbia PFG Storm Rain Jacket (Packable) Purchase Link:
The Tilley LTM6 Airflo Hat is a wonderful piece of head gear. I personally own one and use on the trail. It is a lightweight brimmed hat with a storage pocket on the inside crown. It also has UV protection integrated into the fabric of the hat. Additionally, the rain repellant qualities of the hat fabric also gives it some buoyancy in water.
There are many backpackers that love to brew and drink coffee while out in the backwoods. After setting up your campsite it is nice to sit and enjoy a fresh hot cup of coffee. MSR has produced a unique and versatile reusable coffee/tea filter for backpackers. It is the MugMate Coffee/Tea Filter. This reusable filter fits and stores in almost any mug or cup. It features two side tabs that suspend MugMate in hot water for effective steeping.
Leatherman always produces a quality multitool. The Leatherman Signal Topo Multi-Tool is another quality product from Leatherman. This tool features a stainless-steel blade, needle-nose/regular pliers, wire cutters, screwdrivers, saw, awl, can/bottle opener, carabiner, safety whistle and a fire-starting ferro rod. Stainless-steel construction provides years of dependable service. Moreover, each tool is heat-treated to optimal hardness for its function. Additionally, it has a diamond-shaped sharpener that allows you to sharpen the knife blades while on the trail.
The Garmin inReach Mini is an awesome device to meet your emergency communication and location solutions. Garmin sets the industry standard for GPS devices and emergency communications that are accessible to the average outdoorsman. This small, rugged, lightweight satellite communicator enables two-way text messaging using the 100% global Iridium network (satellite subscription required).
The inReach Mini comes with a lot of features to enable your emergency communications. Trigger an interactive SOS to the 24/7 search and rescue monitoring center (satellite subscription required). You can access downloadable maps, U.S. NOAA charts, color aerial imagery and more by using the free Garmin Earthmate app and compatible devices. An optional inReach weather forecast service provides detailed updates directly to your inReach Mini or paired device. There are basic and premium weather packages available at an additional cost. You can send and receive inReach messages through compatible Garmin devices, including connected wearables and handhelds. NOTICE: Some jurisdictions regulate or prohibit the use of satellite communications devices. It is the responsibility of the user to know and follow all applicable laws in the jurisdictions where the device is intended to be used.
The winter months are almost here.Therefore, as we take a look at our vehicle emergency kits, there some the basic principles that should help you decide what to store in your vehicle. Afterward, we will discuss the top five tools that you should keep in your car for the winter months.
The winter months are almost here. The snow is already beginning to fall in some parts of our nation. It is a good idea to keep an emergency kit in your vehicle. Those who live in New England and the Upper Midwest already know the value of keeping some essential survival items and tools in their cars. Snow and ice can keep your afternoon drive home from work from being smooth. However, for those who live in mild climates, sub-zero temperatures in the winter can be a safety hazard, even on a clear day. Therefore, as we take a look at our vehicle emergency kits, there some the basic principles that should help you decide what to store in your vehicle. Afterward, we will discuss the top five tools that you should keep in your car for the winter months.
Principles For Choosing Emergency Tools
Principle # 1: Experience
The first principle for choosing what tools to store in your vehicle is your experience with the devices themselves. There are many articles, websites, and YouTube® videos that will give advice on emergency tools for your car. However, the question that should be asked is how much experience do you have with those tools? If you have no experience with vehicle maintenance then keeping a mechanic’s toolbox in your care is overkill. Thus, your experience should govern the types and quantities of tools that you keep in your car.
Principle # 2: Historic Winter Climate In Your Location
The second principle that should influence what you keep in your car is the kind of winters that you experience in your location. For example, there are places in the southwest that get snow, but blizzards are rare. By contrast, in the upper Midwest, blizzards and below-zero temperatures are an annual event. Thus, a person living in the southwest may not need to carry a pair of snowshoes in their car as a might a person living in Montana. Therefore, with these principles in mind, what are the top 5 emergency tools that one should keep in their vehicle during the winter?
The first emergency tool that should be held in your car at all times is a good set of tire chains. Tire chains are not technically a “tool.” However, they will make your chances of getting home in winter weather more possible. It is important to remember that tire chains wear out over time. The links can become broken, or the fastening clasps can become broken. Therefore, remember to keep your tire chains maintained and usable at all times.
Road flares have become more sophisticated over the years. There are many types of road flares sold in the local auto parts store. Some people choose to purchase the electronic flares that use flashing LED lights. These types of flares are great for the urban commute home in a major city. However, out on the freeway to visit relatives for Christmas, is not the place for electronic flares. The kinds of road-flares to store in your car for the winter are those the stick kind that light on fire and burn a reddish, orange flame. These are a multi-use item. Not only are they useful for signaling for help, but they are also great for starting fires in an emergency.
A Word of Caution
Road Flares can be a valuable asset in the winter. However, there is always a risk of a burn injury with their use. Be careful when using them and comply with all safety instructions related to their storage, ignition, employment, and disposal.
A Pioneer Tool Kit is a kit that consists of three tools: a shovel, ax, and pick mattock. Truckers and off-road enthusiasts keep these tools stored on their vehicles. Their primary use is to dig out a stuck car. However, in an emergency situation in the winter, they can be used to build a shelter or process firewood. The name of this tool set comes from the frontier days when these types of items were carried on covered wagons. The full-sized shovel, ax, and mattock are suitable for the large SUVs, RVs, and the mid-sized pickup trucks. However, there are smaller versions of these tools that are available at your local hardware store that fit comfortably in smaller vehicles. For example, you may have to substitute a full-sized ax for a camp hatchet. Additionally, you may want to store these tools in a bag. The regular military duffle bag will hold the standard size tools. A smaller heavy duty bag made of nylon or Cordura will keep the smaller version of the pioneer tools. The trunk or storage space in your vehicle will determine the size of your tools and storage bag.
A towing strap made of heavy-duty nylon is an invaluable tool to keep your vehicle. The towing strap is also a multi-use item in an emergency. The standard use of the towing strap is to help another car pull a car out of a rut or ditch. However, the towing strap can be used in the construction of improvised snow shows or mukluks. The towing strap should be considered part of your cordage considerations as you think about your emergency kit for your car.
It is amazing how many people do not have a set of jumper cables in their vehicles. This item used to be a standard item to carry in your car. However, because of the sophistication of the newer cars, the use of jumper cables can be problematic. For example, in some vehicles, the battery is not in the engine compartment but in some other location on the car. Yet, despite these concerns, a quality set of jumper cables are an invaluable asset to store in your car in the winter. Jumper cables can be used for emergency cordage and other emergency tasks.
A Word of Caution
There is always a hazard for an electrical shock when jumper cables are attached to the batter or charging point on your vehicle. Be careful to use them in compliance with all safety instructions relating to the use of jumper cables.
These essential items are critical to your successful survival if stranded off the road in winter. Winter is as dangerous climate as Summer. The level of snow and ice coupled with below-zero temperatures and wind are the perfect conditions for a winter survival emergency away from home. Therefore, keep your vehicle adequately set up to meet emergency situations in the winter. An excellent vehicle survival kit and emergency tools are lifesavers in a stranded situation. Thus, choose your emergency kit items and tools wisely in preparation for the winter.
It is time to get your Get-Home-Bag (GHB) adjusted for the fall and winter months. Your bag is the one emergency item that you keep up-to-date. It should be stored in the trunk of your car or the utility box on your truck. If you find yourself stranded on the side of the road, your GHB will be critical to your survival. Therefore, keep its contents current and adjusted for the season.
Below is a table of suggested contents to consider as items for your bag. This is not a comprehensive list. Moreover, it should be understood that every item listed will not fit into a bag that is coinvent to store in your vehicle. So choose any gear for your bag wisely.
Here is a sample packing list for a winterized Get-Home Bag:
The genesis of the Air Force Survival Knife goes back to the 1950s at the dawn of the jet age. Here is the basic history of this knife.
June 21, 2018
Many of us have been exposed to the fixed blade knife known popularly as the Air Force Survival Knife. We have seen it in outfitter stores, marketed on the internet, and may even have owned one. Possibly, some may have had one issued to them while serving in the military. This knife has been around for many years. It used to be a standard piece of gear for anyone, including backpackers, who was a serious outdoorsman and wilderness adventurers back in the 1970s and 1980s, before the Rambo movies made popular the Rambo-type survival knife. I became curious about the background and history of this knife about a year ago. It was enlightening to discover that there is very little information available on the background and origins of this knife. Most of the information that I have collected about the knife comes from blogs and knife forums on the internet. After vetting the information against the published government standards for this knife and the government procurement process, what emerged was a unique story of an iconic knife that has found its way from the military to the civilian outdoor world and into the hearts of many owners and users.
Origins Of A New Survival Knife for Military Aircrews
The genesis of the Air Force Survival Knife goes back to the 1950s at the dawn of the jet age. The U.S. Defense Department published to private industry requirements for a standardized fixed blade knife to issue to pilots and aircrews of the various service branches. Before this requirement, knives of several types were procured by the individual branches of the military and dispensed to their members. By contrast, the current DoD procurement process is much more refined and regulated. Thus, the current standards, methods, and procedures were not necessarily applicable to the procurement process that brought this knife into existence. As such, finding a definitive history of the development and procurement of this knife is difficult to reconstruct. It is assumed that such information resides in the archives of the companies that have manufactured the knife as well as the files of the DoD. However, based on the information that I have collected, vetted, and coupled with my own experience with the DoD procurement and testing process, here is the basic history of this knife.
The story of this knife seems to begin in 1953, when the DoD announced to private industry their specifications for a standardized survival knife for pilots to interested vendors in Military Specification MIL-K-8662 (16 October 1953). Companies interested in gaining the government contract received these requirements and submitted proposals for consideration based on those requirements. As the development and testing process began to take shape, updates to the original specification documents were published. The 1954 update calls for the knife to have a sharpened clip point blade and an additional rivet to the sheath. That same year, the Marble-Arms Corporation (now known as Marble’s®) began work on designing their prototype for the survival knife based on the government specifications. In 1957, the Marble-Arms Corporation submitted to the U.S. government a design based on their Ideal Hunting Knife design. This design was accepted, and the military specifications documents were updated to reflect Marble’s concept in MIL-K-8662A (04 November 1957). This military specification document would become the standard for further improvements and changes to the pilot survival knife throughout the years.
Marble produced several thousand knives for field testing and delivered them to the U.S. Air Force between 1957-1959. After the completion of testing and bidding competition between Marble, Camillus Cutlery, and the Ontario Knife Company (OKC), Camillus was awarded the contract to supply the new Jet Pilot Survival Knife (JPSK) to the Department of Defense instead of Marble. Camillus produced the knife with a 6-inch blade from 1959-1961. In 1961, updates to the military specifications called for a 5-inch blade. Camillus produced the Jet Pilot Survival Knife with a 5-inch blade from 1961-2006. It appears that in 2006, Ontario Knife Company became the current vendor to the DoD of the Jet Pilot Survival Knife under the National Stock Number (NSN): 7340-00-098-4327. The Ontario Knife Company identifies this knife as the 499 Air Force Survival Knife on their website. Additionally, OKC is the only company selling this knife commercially.
The Air Force Survival Knife Introduced to the Commercial Market
The Air Force Survival Knife was introduced to the commercial market by Marble after not being awarded the DoD contract to supply the new survival knife to the military. The reason behind Marble selling their knife to the general public was due, in part, to pre-maturely manufacturing several thousand knife blades and parts in advance of learning who would be awarded the government contract to supply the knives to the military. To recuperate some of the money that they had spent producing blades and knife components, Marble offered a civilian version of the knife to the public in 1961. Their commercial version of the survival knife had a polished blade instead of a subdued or blued blade, brass guard, and polished pommel. These knives became popular with outdoorsman. Later, after service members began returning from Vietnam, the military-grade issued knives began to be seen on the market. Currently, the military-grade Air Force Survival Knife is only manufactured and sold by the Ontario Knife Company.
Design Features for the Air Force Survival Knife
The primary document that describes the various features of the Air Force Survival Knife is Military Specification MIL-K-8662 (16 October 1953). Over the decades, this document has been updated. The current edition of this document is Aerospace Standard SAE-AS-8662. However, the essential features of the knife have remained constant throughout the life of the knife. What are the unique features of the Air Force Survival Knife, as outlined in the U.S. Government specifications?
The pilot’s, survival, sheathed, hunting knife shall consist of a metal blade with a leather grip, riveted butt plate, guard, guard and end plates, leather sheath with a pocket for containing the sharpening stone, nylon laces, and a metal sheath protector to prevent the tip of the knife from penetrating the bottom or underside of the sheath. The intended use of the knife is for pilots as required in survival situations.
The blade is to be a “through tang” blade blanked from AISI 1095 steel conforming to MIL-S-8665 Steel Bars, Carbon, AISI 1095, Aircraft Quality.
The blade will be tempered to a Rockwell Hardness of C50-C55
The cutting blade is to be 5 1/8 inches long and 3/16 inches thick.
The sheath shall be made of leather in compliance with Federal Standard KK-L-271 Leather, Cattlehide, Strap, Vegetable Tanned.
The sheath leather shall be 8/64-inch-thick
The sheath welt shall be 3/8-inch-thick and 2 ½ inches in length.
The Handle Grip:
The grip will be made of leather in compliance with Federal Standard KK-L-165 Leather, Cattlehide, Vegetable Tanned and Chrome Retanned; Impregnated and Soles.
The leather for the grip will be cut into washers, 1/8 inch in thickness.
The leather will be treated with para-nitrophenol fungicide.
Paranitrophenol fungicide: Paranitrophenol was first registered in the United States in 1963 as a fungicide incorporated into leather products and hides as a preservative. A second fungicidal product was registered in 1967. Both products contained a second active ingredient, salicylanilide. However, the registrations for all registered products containing salicylanilide as an active ingredient have been canceled. Currently, one pesticide product is registered to contain para-nitrophenol as an active ingredient. This registration, granted in 1980, is for use of paranitrophenol as a fungicide incorporated into leather for military use, at a concentration not to exceed 0.7% on the basis of dry finished leather weight. In 1983, this registration was amended to add the use of the product for incorporation into cork insulation for military use.
The Sharpening Stone:
The sharpening stone shall be fabricated from silicon carbide, grain size 280, hardness P, vitrified bond.
The sharpening stone size shall be 3 inches long, 7/8-inch-wide, and 1/4 inch thick.
Some Comments on the Design Features of the Air Force Survival Knife
The Air Force Survival Knife was designed to meet a particular requirement for the military. As such, this knife was not intended as a frontiersman or bushcraft knife, per se. The design features for this knife came about through various inputs from servicemembers, survivability researchers, and training developers. Moreover, the requirement for having a standard survival knife for pilots and aircrews across the DoD was due to economic considerations and budgeting constraints at the time which fostered standardization across the military services. Furthermore, standardization of equipment reduces costs upon the logistical system. These influences upon the procurement system tempered the DoD design features of the knife.
Additionally, the jet age in military aviation increased the number of gear pilots and aircrews had to carry on their flights. Thus, finding ways of reducing the bulk of the Aviation Life Support Equipment (ALSE) assisted in the overall weight considerations for flying. Consequently, the knife blade being reduced from six inches to five inches allowed it to retain some of the qualities necessary to carry out survival tasks, but small enough that it could be easily stowed on an aircrewman’s vest without causing interference for aircrews trying to carry out their duties while flying.
In particular, some questions that arise with this knife are those regarding two specific features of the knife: the saw-toothed spine and the two holes in the handguard. The serrated spine on this knife is part of the functional requirements for this knife. One of the tasks that this knife was designed to accomplish was helping pilots and aircrews egress their downed aircraft or to help first responders extract them from their downed aircraft. The serrated spine was designed to cut through the aluminum skin surrounding the airframes of Korean and Vietnam War-era aircraft. The sharpened clip point on the blade allows the pilot to punch a hole in the aluminum then use the knife spine as a hasty saw to cut through the aircraft skin during an aircraft egress situation.
Additionally, synthetic composite materials like Kevlar had not been fully integrated into aircraft construction until the late 1970s and 1980s. Thus, this knife became obsolete for its original intended use when the majority of military aircraft incorporated composite materials. However, it was still adequate for survival situations and therefore remained in the Federal Supply System.
The second question that arises concerning some of the features of this knife is the purpose of the two holes in the blade guard. As best as can be ascertained, the two holes are used as lashing points for cordage for survival tasks in the field, such as creating a hasty spear. However, there is not enough information in the literature to determine with certainty the purpose of the holes. As with many uses of military equipment, service members use considerable ingenuity in the field when employing their equipment and therefore, the use of the holes in the blade guard for cordage lashing points may have been a field expedient use of the knife rather than as an intentionally designed purpose. So, as stated earlier, the archives of Marble or the DoD may reveal conclusively if the reason for the holes in the handguard.
Further Developments of the Air Force Survival Knife
In the early 2000s, the U.S. Army published requirements to private industry for an aviation survival knife to replace the aging Air Force Survival Knife. As a result, the Ontario Knife Company developed a prototype based on the 1957 design that was first submitted by Marble. Ontario’s model became the Aircrew Survival and Egress Knife, System (ASEK) based on the published requirements by the U.S. Army. Ontario’s knife became procured by the U.S. Army and was issued a National Stock Number, NSN: 1095-01-530-0833 within the Federal Supply System. However, this was not the end of the aging Air Force Survival Knife. It is currently still in inventory with the DoD through the GSA. As a further development on the Air Force Survival Knife, the Ontario Knife Company offers a second-generation civilian version of the knife in its Special Purpose SP® series of knives. It is the SP 2, Survival Knife.
Some Concluding Thoughts
The Air Force Survival Knife has had a storied, yet obscure, history. The knife has been in continuous service with the Department of Defense for over sixty years. The iconic design features of the knife, that have characterized its look, have remained unchanged since its inception. This is a testimony to the ingenuity of the design team that developed the knife at the Marble’s company. As well, it must be remembered that this knife was designed to address a specific need for the U.S. military and was not intended to be used outside of that context. However, because of Marble’s premature manufacturing of the knife before it was awarded a government contract, the rest of the world gained the privilege to own this knife.
The Air Force Survival Knife will be around for a very long time. Even if the Ontario Knife Company discontinues their production and the DoD phases them out of their inventories, the knife will be around for commercial purchase. Surplus stores will purchase them in bulk through U.S. Government auctions, collectors will buy them at auctions, military museums will display them, and they will continue to be available for purchase on the internet. It is also suspected that knife makers will begin to find ways to improve the knife and manufacture their versions of the knife similar to what knife companies are doing with other legacy knife designs.
The journey of this iconic knife has been exciting to discover. I own one as a backup knife for my backpacking, outdoor, and emergency needs. The Air Force Survival Knife is an excellent knife. Those who do not currently own one should purchase one. It will not be long before you are won over by the versatility and practicality of the Air Force Survival Knife.
There is a new version of the MOLLE rucksack called, the MOLLE 4000. What are the features and characteristics of this pack?
January 30, 2018
Military surplus MOLLE backpacks and pouches and their commercial-of-the-shelf (COTS) imitators have become a favorite purchase item for both the outdoor enthusiasts and preppers. As with most equipment designed for the military, it has limited efficiency when employed for civilian use. For example, the current modular sleep system used by the military will not fit in its entirety into the sleeping bag compartments of most commercial backpacks. Therefore, for the ultralight backpackers and adventure racers, military surplus, such as sleeping bags, are avoided. However, MOLLE backpacks and pouches are purchased and used by a wide variety of people and they work quite well when used within their designed purposes. In recent years, an interest has arisen in the military for a backpack, whose volume falls in between the current issue MOLLE Large and Medium Rucksacks. MOLLE is an acronym for Modular Light Weight Load Carrying Equipment. The MOLLE system was first introduced in the late 1990s to replace the aging Vietnam-era ALICE (All-Purpose Individual Combat Equipment) system. New materials and manufacturing techniques drives the current philosophy of producing lighter and stronger individual equipment that is procured by the military. Once aging or unserviceable MOLLE equipment is coded out of the military inventory system, it becomes available for acquisition by civilian surplus stores for sale to the general public.
A new version of the MOLLE rucksack called, the MOLLE 4000, is being tested by the military for parachute operations. Some of the early test models submitted by vendors are starting to make their way on to the market for the general public. I purchased mine last year at a military surplus store when I lived in Virginia. These are interesting packs and reflect the genre of the military’s current designs for rucksacks. It is not known, as of this writing, if the military has adopted this particular design of the rucksack. However, it is certain that more of these backpacks will eventually find their way to surplus stores, as well as, internet vendors and will be purchased by interested consumers.
This rucksack falls into the category of an external frame backpack. The advertised volume of the rucksack is 4000 cubic inches making it 65 liters. It is constructed of 1000 Denier Cordura fabric. The frame is made of high impact polymer plastic. The PALS webbing give the added value of modularity. All zippers are the standard YKK-type. The buckles are the standard heavy duty plastic, Fastek-type. The pack has the appearance of an over-sized MOLLE 3-day Assault Pack with a top flap closure instead of a zippered one. I have read others describe it as a kind of modern ALICE pack.
The main compartment is 4000 cubic inches or 65 liters. However, because of the addition of the storm flap, the volume of the main compartment increases to 85 liters if fully packed. It has one large access pouch on the outside, similar to the ones on the assault pack and medium rucksack. The outside compartment gives an additional 20 liters in the overall volume to the pack. Therefore, the over all volume of the pack is 90-95 liters.
The main compartment has a draw-string storm flap closure. There is a zippered access point on the main compartment for easy access to the contents while the main cover is closed. It has a large cover flap for the main compartment that functions as a map compartment with a Velcro closure. There is no mesh webbing on the underside of the main compartment flap as there is on the large MOLLE rucksack. The excess strapping from the two main closure straps can be rolled up and secured in two slots on the top of the main compartment flap. It has two compression straps on each side, similar to the MOLLE Medium Rucksack. The pack frame is the equivalent to the USMC DE1606 MC frame. The frame is much more thick than the standard frame thickness of the MOLLE Medium or Large Rucksacks. The shoulder straps are sewn into the pack with the pack sitting over the frame in a similar manner to the legacy ALICE pack and LC-2 frame. There is a compartment on the bottom of the ruck that stores the parachute rigging. What are some observations about this backpack?
Because of its intended use, the MOLLE 4000 seems to be heavy for its size when empty. This is because the pack has to withstand larger stressors on it during parachute operations than a normal backpack. The padding on the shoulder straps is thicker than those on the other rucksacks in this line giving it exceptional comfort. The pack does look like a cross between the legacy ALICE pack and current MOLLE rucksack. Initial impressions of this pack are that it has great potential to become a favorite for hikers and backpackers with some modifications for non-military users. How does this backpack perform on the trail?
This pack performed well on the trail. It felt more like my older ALICE pack on my back the longer I carried it. The lumbar waist belt provides excellent comfort over an extended period of time. The PALS webbing on the lumbar belt also gives additional pouch options. The shoulder straps and the shoulder padding also give excellent comfort. However, some thought needs to be put into balancing the weight of the contents if additional outside pouches are attached. For example, I attempted to attach my Condor Nalgene Bottle Pouch on the side with a full water bottle. It caused the weight to become imbalanced, so I just packed it on the top of the main compartment under the flap closure for easy access, since I did not have another Nalgene Bottle for the opposite side. The weight of the pack with my contents started to get close to 40-45 lbs. in total weight. This was before I added the sleeping bag which pushed the pack to over 50 lbs. What is the best employment of this backpack?
Best Use of This Backpack
This pack is best used for no more than a two or three day hike. The weight of the pack combined with necessary contents for longer treks on the trail would cause the pack to become uncomfortable very quickly, especially for thru-hiking. The pack is ruggedly built, so it would be a good pack for hunters. Its dimensions make it too small to be used as a large game hauler. However, it will easily accommodate varmint hunting or trapping. This pack would also be a good consideration for bushcrafters because of the deep barrel main compartment construction. This pack would also be a good consideration as a 72-hour emergency evacuation or bug out bag. How could this pack be improved?
If commercial manufacturers decide to produce a civilian version of this backpack, here are some suggested changes that could make the pack more user-friendly to the general public.
The manufacturer should consider putting in a water bladder compatible inner compartment.
The manufacturer should consider constructing a thinner thickness frame to reduce the empty weight of the pack for general use considerations.
The manufacturer should consider a titanium tubing LC-2 ALICE-type frame to replace the polymer frame for added strength and durability as well as reducing the empty weight of the pack.
Overall this backpack is a wonderful pack for no more than three days on the trail. It will easily accommodate the packing needs of most day hikers or weekend backpackers. The construction of the pack eliminates worry about damage under general-use conditions. Its volumous main compartment allows for any combination of contents for most outdoor scenarios and considerations.
January 25, 2018
The camping, fishing, hiking, and backpacking season will soon be upon us. Many people will begin to head outdoors during the Spring and Summer. It is a wonderful time for families to take advantage of nature’s beauty. Children will be taken out on the trails, lakes, and campsites across America by their parents. In such cases, some parents may assess that there is a need to put an emergency or survival kit into their children’s backpacks.
When constructing emergency kits for my children’s backpacks, there are concerns that arise when trying to decide what contents should be inside of their kits. Many of the suggested contents for personal emergency kits are made for adult considerations. One of the most common starting points for personal emergency kit construction is the SAS Survival Handbook by Lofty Wiseman. It is obvious that many of the contents suggested by Wiseman are not relevant for children when considered from a parental perspective. For example, Wiseman’s kit contents are as follows:
4. Magnifying Glass
6. Fish hooks/line
8. Beta Light
9. Snare Wire
10. Wire Saw
11. Medical Kit (suggested contents, tailor to personal needs)
a. Pain Relievers
b. Gastrointestinal Medicine
c. Antibiotic Medicine
d. Allergy Relievers
e. Water Purification Tabs
f. Anti-Malaria Tablets
g. Potassium Permanganate
h. Surgical Blades
i. Butterfly Sutures
j. Band Aids (Plasters)
Furthermore, it must be remembered that Wiseman’s personal emergency kit contents are based on legacy or dated technology from the Cold War or they are unique to the British Army, yet the concepts or principles are still relevant today. For example, beta lights (phosphorescent/tritium lights) are available for purchase but mini-chemlights are a more accessible source to the average consumer. Moreover, the items that he suggests in his kits are based on military operations and military survival training. They address situations in which pilots or ground personnel find themselves in a survival situation on the battlefield due to being separated from friendly forces. Furthermore, as the name implies, survival or emergency kits are an item of last resort only to be employed in the most desperate situations, where survival may not be possible without their use. How can a survival tin or pouch that is based on the concepts of the SAS-type survival tin be made applicable for use by children or teenagers?
First, when constructing a Lofty Wiseman SAS-type survival tin or pouch for your children, some discernment, wisdom, and common sense needs to be applied to the task. For example, a tritium light or mini-chemlight would be a great item in a survival kit for an adult or teenager; however, they could be a choking hazard for younger children. Choking hazards are a concern, as well, with other small items such as button compasses, mini ferro rods, and small magnifying glasses. Therefore, include survival items in the tin that are consistent with your children’s maturity and assessed capabilities for responsible behavior. You do not want to have a preventable emergency with your children while enjoying the outdoors.
Second, a concern when considering items for an emergency survival tin for your children is the fragility or durability of the contents. For example, when considering how to address lighting, it is best to use some type of micro flashlight that is one piece, can be turned on with a simple pressure switch, and are waterproof. Micro flashlights that have to be twisted to turn on or off are prone to being disassembled by curious toddlers or younger children. An example of this type of flashlight would be the Mini-Mag. Once this type of flashlight is taken apart in the field, parts will get lost, broken, or possibly swallowed. The flashlight will then be rendered useless, thus, defeating the purpose for it in the tin. Glass signal mirrors can become cracked or broken. Therefore, a single, stainless steel micro signal mirror or polished military dog tag would be a better item in a survival kit for children.
Third, another concern when considering items for an emergency tin or pouch for your children are cutting injuries. Those of us with children have the experience of our younger children getting a dinner knife or scissors out of a kitchen drawer in a moment when our attention is distracted. Thus, we tend to put such items out of reach for their own safety to prevent unnecessary injury or harm. This safety concern will also influence what kinds of cutting devices are in a survival kit for your children. One item that is universal for any kind of survival kit is a knife. However, putting a knife in your children’s survival kit should only be done with the utmost of care and consideration of their experience and capabilities for safe and responsible behavior regardless of their age. This same principle should also drive decisions about placing fishing or sewing items in their kits.
As we contemplate how to construct one of these personal emergency kits for our children, what are some items to consider? In other words, what kinds of item did I consider when constructing a personal emergency survival kit for my children? The following are some suggested items for a children’s personal emergency survival kit:
1. Container Options:
o Tin, Small
o Tin, Large
o Dry Box
o aLokSak Bag
2. Cutting Device:
o Gerber LST Ultralight Knife, Fine Edge
o 15’ Mil Spec Survival Cord, MIL-C-5040 Type 1A
4. Signaling Device:
o S.O.L. Slim Rescue Howler Whistle
o S.O.L. Micro Signaling Mirror
5. Lighting Device:
o Micro Light Keychain Mini Flashlight
o Button Compass
7. Fire Making:
o Bic Mini Lighter
o 2 x Tender Quick Tab
8. Food Procurement:
o 25’ Braided Fishing Line wrapped around a Floss Bobbin
o Basic Fishing Kit
o P-51 Military Can Opener
o Note: Snare wire is not included in my children’s kit because setting up snares and traps is an advanced skill of which they are unfamiliar at this point. The snare wire can be added in later or placed in a larger kit.
9. Equipment Repair:
o 1” Duct Tape wrapped around Floss Bobbin
o 3 x Safety Pins, Stainless Steel
10. First Aid:
o 1 x Bandage Strip, Large
o 1 x Bandage Strip, Medium
o 2 x Bandage, Butterfly
o 2 x Alcohol Wipes (Can be used for fire starting also)
o 2 x Antibiotic Ointment, packs
o Golf Pencil
o 2 x Mini Index Cards
A personal emergency survival kit for one’s children is a challenge to think through and build. They can be a useful tool for teaching your children about the proper use of the contents and on their proper employment. It is an adventure, in and of itself, to sit down and think through what a child or teenager needs if they become separated from their family in some way in the outdoors. There have been many stories over the years in which children became separated and lost from their families while they were enjoying time outdoors. Toddlers may not be adept in outdoor survival skills. However, teaching them early about why we carry a survival kit in our backpacks and giving them some of the simpler items to play with, like a howler whistle, helps them to begin to make the connection in their mind about the purpose of the kit itself. In much the same way one learns a trade skill through apprenticeship, we, parents, can teach our children about operating and surviving in a wilderness environment. This will empower them in adulthood to enjoy nature’s beauty, as well as, making responsible decisions about the stewardship of the environment.