This Awesome Tool Can Help You Prevent Heat Injuries!

The prevention of heat injuries in hot weather conditions is crucial to enjoying the outdoors in the warmer months of the year. Do you have this awesome tool to help prevent heat injuries?

Do you have this awesome tool to help prevent heat injuries? March 20th marks the official change from winter to spring. Many parts of the nation are still reeling from the effects of the late winter storms. However, spring signals that warmer temperatures and the summer months will soon be here. The warmer temperatures of spring and summer bring with them their own unique weather-related injuries. Heat injuries are just as life-threatening as cold weather injuries. The three common heat injuries are heat cramps, heat exhaustion, and heat stroke. A valuable tool to keep in your kit is the Work-Rest and Water Consumption Table published by the U.S. Army Public Health Command (USAPHC).

original

1. The Work to Rest Definition Section

work categories

The work to rest section of this card helps people understand how much work a person can do within a range of temperatures. There are three categories of work annotated on this instrument: Easy Work, Moderate Work, and Hard Work. Each section gives examples of the type of work that a person can do. The critical part of this section for outdoorsman are the walking distances and weights for carrying loads. The reason that this is critical for outdoorsman is that these annotations directly address their particular concerns. Hikers, backpackers, hunters, anglers, and others, who spend time outdoors in the spring and summer, will find that information crucial for their activities. The information annotated in this section comes as a result of decades of research to help soldiers stay healthy, as well as, function safely and effectively in hot weather conditions.

2. Heat Category Section

heat cats

The Heat Category Section is a unique numerical and color code system that the U.S. Army developed to alert supervisors of the potential for heat casualties based on the current temperatures. These heat categories are in use throughout the year. However, their relevance increases during the spring and summer months. The types are numbered one through five. Heat Categories 3, 4, and 5 are heat conditions with a higher risk for heat injuries. Heat Categories 1 and 2 have temperature conditions with the lowest risk for heat injuries. Nevertheless, remember that there is always a risk for a heat injury even at Heat Category 1.

3. Wet Bulb Globe Temperature Index (WBGT) Sectionwbgt cats

The next section on the card is the Wet Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGT) Index correlated to the levels of heat categories. The WBGT index offers a more comprehensive assessment of heat conditions than air temperature alone or the Heat Index. The definition of the WBGT Index is that it is a measure of the heat stress in direct sunlight, which takes into account: temperature, humidity, wind speed, sun angle and cloud cover (solar radiation) (https://www.weather.gov/tsa/wbgt). The critical point is heat stress attributable to exposure to direct sunlight.

Thus, the WBGT Index is an indicator of the accumulated effects of weather and heat conditions upon a person working in direct sunlight. Therefore, in Heat Category 4, people working in direct sunlight when WBGT conditions are between 88° and 88.9° are at a dangerous risk of having a heat injury (heat cramps, heat exhaustion, or heat stroke). One way to determine the WBGT for your area is to call your local weather station. Another way to learn the WBGT for your area is to purchase a WBGT Heat Stress Meter.
reed-r6200-wbgt-heat-stress-meter

4. Work-Rest Time Section


work-rest

The third section is the Work-Rest Time section. The division is a guide to inform people on the recommended level of work versus rest within the various heat categories. It is based on any given sixty minutes of outdoor activity. This section is one of the more controversial parts of the card. For example, if a unit is provided a training mission to conduct a dismounted movement in the desert in the summer, how is this work/rest cycle implemented without jeopardizing the mission or the health of the soldiers? The answer to that question goes into the required risk assessment of which commanders must sign.

However, outdoorsman, hikers, and backpackers are outside of the constraints of the military application of this chart. Therefore, it is best to follow the work-rest recommendations to increase avoidance of experiencing a heat injury. For example, under the Easy Work column, there are no limitations on easy work until Heat Category 5. Whereas, on the Hard Work column, the work-rest recommendation for Heat Category 1 is 40 minutes of work with 20 minutes of rest. Thus, hiking a trail rated as difficult would fall under the Hard Work column of the chart. Therefore, heed the work-rest cycle in hot weather conditions appropriate for the level of difficulty of your outdoor activity.

5. Water Intake Section


water intake

Another relevant section of this chart is the Water Intake section. The measurements on the Water Intake section are in quarts per hour. A cautionary note on the margin of this chart warns, “Hourly fluid intake should not exceed 1 ½ quarts. Daily fluid intake should not exceed 12 quarts.” These warnings are given for the prevention of the onset of overhydration or water intoxication which can lead to hyponatremia.

Hyponatremia is a dangerous heat-related injury caused by diluting the electrolytes in the bloodstream through too much water intake. In other words, too much water intake will cause your electrolytes to be depleted. Consequently, your body shuts down because the electricity needed to run your body cannot get from your brain to your organs. As a result, your internal organs begin to shut down. Therefore, watch your fluid intake in hot weather and do not over do it.

Final Thoughts

The prevention of heat injuries in hot weather conditions is crucial to enjoying the outdoors in the warmer months of the year. The Work-Rest Water Consumption Table is a valuable tool to employ in your outdoor planning activities during the spring and summer. Additionally, it is essential to read the marginal notes of this card as they help in defining terms and explaining annotations on the card. There is a more comprehensive document that contains this table. It is the Heat Illness Prevention (HIP) Pocket Guide (2018). The document also includes The Work-Rest Water Consumption Table, as well as, other useful information and tips to enable the prevention of heat injuries. Therefore, as you get ready for more outdoor activities in the coming months, remember to consult The Work-Rest Water Consumption Table before leaving on your next outdoor adventure.

Hiking With Your Family

Hiking with your family can be a great time outdoors. Here is what I learned.

Hiking with your family can be a great time outdoors. Children love being outside. Recently, my wife wanted us to go hiking near where we live. The trail was a heavily used unimproved service road that wound around the mountains near our home. I thought that it would be a good opportunity to teach our two oldest children about hiking and backpacking. In that process, what was normally second nature to me, had to be slowed down and methodically articulated and each preparatory task thought through. Here is what I learned:

Lessons Learned From Hiking With Family

1. Kids get tired of carrying their backpacks more quickly than you are expecting. I ended up hand-carrying their little packs on the return leg of our hike back to our car.

2. Kids like to get into their backpacks and play with all of those essential items that have been put together for them (e.g. whistles, multi-tools, flashlights, snacks, etc.).

3. Backpack weight has be considered. Carrying weight has to be something that a person needs to get used to. This is especially true for children and their backpacks. Even though I thought my kid’s backpacks were light, their little back muscles and shoulders became fatigued carrying the weight on their backs much sooner than was anticipated.

4. If you have an infant, someone has to have a child carrier instead of a stroller. My wife wanted to use a stroller for our infant son. However, the trail was unimproved and had some steep areas along the way. This made pushing the stroller more physically demanding that would have been if one of us was using a child-carrier.

5. Kids will sunburn more easily, become dehydrated more easily, and will lose interest in the hike more quickly that you are anticipating. 

Suggestions For Hiking With Your Family

Here are some suggestions to consider if you have never been hiking or backpacking with your family or have not been outdoors with your family in a while.

1. Do not put things in your children’s backpacks that you do not want them to get into. If you can, carry those items with you. During rest breaks, teach them about each of the items that you are carrying for them.

2. Carry extra water and food in your pack for your children.

3. Be mindful of the weight of the children’s backpacks. They cannot carry as much weight as you might think.

4. If you use a child-carrier, then the spouse that can carry the extras for the children will have to carry them in their pack.

5. Do not overload your own back to carry extras. I have arthritis in my back, so I have to be careful about how much weight I am putting on my body, so that there are no spasms or cramps during the hike. This means that some items will have to be left home or in the vehicle.

6. Have realistic expectations of yourself, your spouse, and your children. If you or your spouse are not in shape to conduct a multi-day hike, or your children have little or no experience with hiking or backpacking, do not attempt a large and complicated hike. Start with short hikes and work your family up to being able to hike a multi-day hike. It is easy to take on more than you or your family are ready for by being overconfident in your knowledge, abilities, or physical fitness.

7. As always, have an emergency plan. Children can get hurt out there just like you. Have a plan on how to deal with emergencies (i.e. physical injuries, sickness, bites, allergic reactions, etc.).

8. Finally, always tell someone what you are doing, where you are going and what time you will return. Provide them a map with indicated waypoints along with your cell/smart phone number and emergency points of contact like U.S. Park Ranger Stations, etc.

Some Final Thoughts

The outdoors can be a lot of fun for your family. Children love adventure and seeing all of the new things that are presented by the outdoors satisfies those curiosities. However, safety has to be the operative word when taking your family on the trail. Little feet get tired, little backs get fatigued, your spouse gets as physically tired as you do and needs a break. Therefore, every precaution should be considered before leaving for even a few hours in the wilderness. As one Oregon family discovered, you can get lost just going out to pick wild berries. So, be prepared at all times, especially, when young children are included in the outdoor adventure.

If you are safe and thoughtful, hiking with your family can bring a lifetime of fond memories and an appetite for more outdoor fun. There is nothing like watching your young children get excited about a seeing a deer in the distance or a butterfly suddenly fly past unexpected. Hiking and backpacking are a great way to enjoy nature, get some physical exercise, and develop family relationships. Therefore, do not hesitate to enjoy a little outdoor recreation with your family on the hiking trail.

I hope this has been useful for you.

Take care and See you on the Trail!

8 Tips For Trekking On Unfamiliar Terrain

There are 8 tips for trekking on unfamiliar terrain to consider when planning your next outdoor adventure. Even the well-experienced hikers can get lost and in trouble on the trail just as quickly as novices.

There are 8 tips for trekking on unfamiliar terrain to consider when planning your next outdoor adventure. An Associated Press story about a hiker from the state of Virginia who was found dead after going missing on a day hike in Mexico on December 30, 2014 provides some helpful insights on hiking on unfamiliar terrain.

First, the positive aspects of the story inform us that person did have a communication plan. He sent a selfie picture to his wife and then a couple of hours later sent a text message. This was probably very helpful information that aided the Mexican Search and Rescue (SAR) teams find his body.

However, two important pieces of information from this article that were revealed was that the man did not have any survival training and that he had gotten lost while on day hikes in his past. The story goes on to relate that he was able to self-recover from being lost on previous occasions; however, this time he was in a foreign country and navigating on unfamiliar terrain. What are some key learning elements from this story regarding hiking on unfamiliar terrain whether you are hiking in the United States or abroad?

1. Establish A Plan

First, have a plan. That means you need to have a plan for conducting your hike from start to finish. Planning your hike must involve determining your route, your expected time of return to your starting point, establishing way points on your GPS if you are using one. There should be an integration of an emergency plan should you get lost or injured while hiking. You should ensure that you have adequate food and water for the area, time on the trail, and time of year. Now the question arises as to how you plan the actual hike upon terrain upon in which you have never traversed.

2. Conduct A Map Reconnaissance

The first step in planning a hike on unfamiliar terrain is to consult a map. With the advent of iPads, Tablets, and GPS devices, Google Earth, topographic terrain applications are available for most of these devices. If you cannot afford the electronic stuff, there are paper maps that can be purchased. If you cannot find a map that covers your area of interest prior to your trip, you can buy a map at your intended location once you have arrived. Another way to get information on the terrain upon which you are unfamiliar is to do an internet search. There is no reason why you cannot get some idea of the terrain you wish to hike if you are hiking anywhere in North America or Europe. Asia, Central and South America, and Africa may present some challenges in regards to obtaining information, but it is not impossible.

3. Conduct A Risk Assessment

Conducting a risk assessment of your planned outdoor adventure is critical to a safe hike. It is essential to understand the risks of the area and incorporate risk mitigation into your plan. There are several ways to conduct a risk assessment. The simplest is to take a piece of paper and list the risks, such as dehydration, then under the risk, list ways to mitigate or control that risk, such as carrying a water treatment kit. The U.S. Army Composite Risk Management Worksheet is a useful tool for conducting a risk assessment for planning a backpacking trip on unfamiliar terrain.

4. Identify The Terrain Hazards

Generally, there are two types of hazards to consider on any hike, man-made and naturally occurring risks.

Natural Hazards

The naturally occurring hazards are the most likely to be encountered.  Naturally occurring hazards encompass wild life, dangerous plants and insects, and weather. Your local bookstore, library, and outfitter store can provide information on the natural hazards pertaining to the area in which you desire to hike. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) website can provide accurate weather assessments for the area you wish to hike in the United States. 

Man-made Hazards

Another risk to consider when hiking over unfamiliar terrain are the man-made hazards that may exist on your route. Man-made hazards can be construction areas, logging areas, mining areas, or places of war, insurrection, or high crime areas. A hiker from North Carolina was recently killed by members of a drug cartel while he was hiking in Mexico. His story illustrates the importance of understanding the man-made hazards on a particular hike. 

Travel Restrictions and Warnings

Another important aspect about man-made hazards to consider for hiking in foreign countries is to check and heed the warning and travel restrictions published by the U.S. State Department. Sometimes tourists in foreign country like to take a treks away from the places that are established for tourists. It is critical to understand and heed the travel restrictions issued by the U.S. State Department. We do not have perfect knowledge of any particular foreign area. Therefore, it is imperative to integrate our government’s travel restrictions and warnings into any trek that will transpire in a foreign country. 

5. Establish and Publish An Emergency Plan

Another planning consideration in regards to hiking on unfamiliar terrain is to plan for emergencies. I have watched several documentaries about mountain climbing, hiking, and endurance races. Most of the unfortunate incidences discussed in these programs center on the fact that the individuals affected were not prepared for emergencies. I have also read several news stories over the last few months where hikers had to be rescued who were lost or injured while hiking. Their testimony was that they were not anticipating any problems on their hike. The take away principle from the experiences of others is always prepare for the worst scenario that can happen on your hike. Never go on a hike, regardless of length of time or distance without an emergency plan.

6. Incorporate A Personal Emergency Survival Kit

Your emergency plan should incorporate a personal emergency survival kit. The kit should address the basic principles of survival: Shelter, Food, Fire, and Hydration. The best survival kit is the one that you develop on your own. There are several resources available that will help you understand how to build your own kit. Your personal survival kit should be tailored for your particular hike and for the time of the year in which you will be backpacking. The challenge for taking emergency survival gear into foreign countries for backpacking is the aspect of the survival knife. Consult the laws of the country in which you desire to travel regarding knives and multi-tools. It may be that you have to buy one of these items after you arrive in the country of your destination. There are some seasonal aspects to consider when building your survival kit.

 7. Incorporate Seasonal Gear

One aspect of risk mitigation for trekking on unfamiliar terrain is to understand and incorporate seasonal gear into your packing list. You can not pack for every single contingency. Your backpack will be too heavy to carry if you try. Therefore, it is important to tailor your packing for the particular season and kind of terrain upon you will trek. This is called, modularity. 

Summer/Fall Gear Considerations

At a minimum your backpack should have for a summer or early fall hike the following items: rain gear, such as a waterproof tarp or H2O proof outerwear. Wet weather will be the one weather hazard that you will encounter in most locations in the summer or fall in North America or Europe. Therefore, in addition to the basic survival kit items, consider some type of rain gear to put in your backpack. The temperatures will fluctuate as the earth transitions from summer to fall. It is beneficial to include some kind of light to medium cold weather gear, such as, a packable jacket and fleece cap. The Columbia Watertight II Jacket (Packable) is a great example of raingear for backpacking. 

Winter/Spring Gear Considerations

Hiking in the winter to early spring brings its own weather risks. Cold weather gear should be part of your packing list if you are trekking during this time of the year. One type of winter gear to bring on a hike in the winter are snowshoes. The MSR EVO Ascent Snowshoes are an example of snowshoes for hiking. Hand and Body warmers should be a consideration for your packing list. Winter outerwear such as the Columbia Alpine Action Jacket with Omni-Heat technology is the kind of winter gear to consider putting on your packing list. 

8. Get Formal Survival Training

Another aspect of the news article mentioned above was that the wife of the hiker reported that he did not have any survival training. This is unfortunate. As many resources, websites, and television programs that are available that cover survival, nobody should be without some kind of knowledge of the basics of survival.

If you have never had any training on survival techniques in the wilderness, I would recommend that you conduct an internet search of some good videos that give sound instruction on such important information as building shelters, starting fires, etc. The best information for those not familiar with survival techniques are Les Stroud’s Survivorman video series. Dave Canterbury and his Pathfinder School provide good instructional videos also.

If you can afford it, take a survival course before your next hike. There are four places of instruction that I would recommend: Dave Canterbury’s Pathfinder School , Cody Lundin’s Aboriginal Living Skills School , ESEE Knives’-Randal’s Adventure and Training School of Survival , and the Sigma 3 Survival School. Some of these schools have ex-military veterans as instructors, who have experience and expertise in training survival techniques. Having an understanding of survival basics and some, familiarity on how to use basic survival equipment, such as an individual first aid kit, is better than no knowledge at all.

Concluding Thoughts

In conclusion, hiking on unfamiliar terrain can be an exciting experience; however, failure to plan and anticipate problems increases the chances of a good hike turning bad. Stay on well-used paths and do not venture off into areas for a great selfie or a great view of the scenery. Remember that even the well-experienced hikers can get lost and in trouble on the trail just as quickly as novices. Therefore, stay informed, stay safe, have a plan, and enjoy your hike.
See you on the trail!

Handy Information For Backpacking

June 23, 2018

Here are some handy pieces of information to add to your backpacking packing list: Smart Cards. I created three smart cards based on information that I gleaned online and from other sources. I hope that you find these helpful. 

This is my Hot Weather Card

My Summer Smart Card

This is my Cold Weather Card

My Cold WX Card

This is my Map Reading Helps Card

My Map Card

 

Personal Emergency or Survival Kits for Children

January 25, 2018
The camping, fishing, hiking, and backpacking season will soon be upon us. Many people will begin to head outdoors during the Spring and Summer. It is a wonderful time for families to take advantage of nature’s beauty. Children will be taken out on the trails, lakes, and campsites across America by their parents. In such cases, some parents may assess that there is a need to put an emergency or survival kit into their children’s backpacks.

When constructing emergency kits for my children’s backpacks, there are concerns that arise when trying to decide what contents should be inside of their kits. Many of the suggested contents for personal emergency kits are made for adult considerations. One of the most common starting points for personal emergency kit construction is the SAS Survival Handbook by Lofty Wiseman. It is obvious that many of the contents suggested by Wiseman are not relevant for children when considered from a parental perspective. For example, Wiseman’s kit contents are as follows:
1. Matches
2. Candle
3. Flint
4. Magnifying Glass
5. Needles/Thread
6. Fish hooks/line
7. Compass
8. Beta Light
9. Snare Wire
10. Wire Saw
11. Medical Kit (suggested contents, tailor to personal needs)
a. Pain Relievers
b. Gastrointestinal Medicine
c. Antibiotic Medicine
d. Allergy Relievers
e. Water Purification Tabs
f. Anti-Malaria Tablets
g. Potassium Permanganate
h. Surgical Blades
i. Butterfly Sutures
j. Band Aids (Plasters)
12. Condom

Furthermore, it must be remembered that Wiseman’s personal emergency kit contents are based on legacy or dated technology from the Cold War or they are unique to the British Army, yet the concepts or principles are still relevant today. For example, beta lights (phosphorescent/tritium lights) are available for purchase but mini-chemlights are a more accessible source to the average consumer. Moreover, the items that he suggests in his kits are based on military operations and military survival training. They address situations in which pilots or ground personnel find themselves in a survival situation on the battlefield due to being separated from friendly forces. Furthermore, as the name implies, survival or emergency kits are an item of last resort only to be employed in the most desperate situations, where survival may not be possible without their use. How can a survival tin or pouch that is based on the concepts of the SAS-type survival tin be made applicable for use by children or teenagers?

First, when constructing a Lofty Wiseman SAS-type survival tin or pouch for your children, some discernment, wisdom, and common sense needs to be applied to the task. For example, a tritium light or mini-chemlight would be a great item in a survival kit for an adult or teenager; however, they could be a choking hazard for younger children. Choking hazards are a concern, as well, with other small items such as button compasses, mini ferro rods, and small magnifying glasses. Therefore, include survival items in the tin that are consistent with your children’s maturity and assessed capabilities for responsible behavior. You do not want to have a preventable emergency with your children while enjoying the outdoors.

Second, a concern when considering items for an emergency survival tin for your children is the fragility or durability of the contents. For example, when considering how to address lighting, it is best to use some type of micro flashlight that is one piece, can be turned on with a simple pressure switch, and are waterproof. Micro flashlights that have to be twisted to turn on or off are prone to being disassembled by curious toddlers or younger children. An example of this type of flashlight would be the Mini-Mag. Once this type of flashlight is taken apart in the field, parts will get lost, broken, or possibly swallowed. The flashlight will then be rendered useless, thus, defeating the purpose for it in the tin. Glass signal mirrors can become cracked or broken. Therefore, a single, stainless steel micro signal mirror or polished military dog tag would be a better item in a survival kit for children.

Third, another concern when considering items for an emergency tin or pouch for your children are cutting injuries. Those of us with children have the experience of our younger children getting a dinner knife or scissors out of a kitchen drawer in a moment when our attention is distracted. Thus, we tend to put such items out of reach for their own safety to prevent unnecessary injury or harm. This safety concern will also influence what kinds of cutting devices are in a survival kit for your children. One item that is universal for any kind of survival kit is a knife. However, putting a knife in your children’s survival kit should only be done with the utmost of care and consideration of their experience and capabilities for safe and responsible behavior regardless of their age. This same principle should also drive decisions about placing fishing or sewing items in their kits.

As we contemplate how to construct one of these personal emergency kits for our children, what are some items to consider? In other words, what kinds of item did I consider when constructing a personal emergency survival kit for my children? The following are some suggested items for a children’s personal emergency survival kit:

1. Container Options:
o Tin, Small
o Tin, Large
o Pouch
o Dry Box
o aLokSak Bag

2. Cutting Device:
o Gerber LST Ultralight Knife, Fine Edge

3. Cordage:
o 15’ Mil Spec Survival Cord, MIL-C-5040 Type 1A

4. Signaling Device:
o S.O.L. Slim Rescue Howler Whistle
o S.O.L. Micro Signaling Mirror

5. Lighting Device:
o Micro Light Keychain Mini Flashlight

6. Navigation:
o Button Compass

7. Fire Making:
o Bic Mini Lighter
o 2 x Tender Quick Tab

8. Food Procurement:
o 25’ Braided Fishing Line wrapped around a Floss Bobbin
o Basic Fishing Kit
o P-51 Military Can Opener
o Note: Snare wire is not included in my children’s kit because setting up snares and traps is an advanced skill of which they are unfamiliar at this point. The snare wire can be added in later or placed in a larger kit.

9. Equipment Repair:
o 1” Duct Tape wrapped around Floss Bobbin
o 3 x Safety Pins, Stainless Steel

10. First Aid:
o 1 x Bandage Strip, Large
o 1 x Bandage Strip, Medium
o 2 x Bandage, Butterfly
o 2 x Alcohol Wipes (Can be used for fire starting also)
o 2 x Antibiotic Ointment, packs

11. Communication:
o Golf Pencil
o 2 x Mini Index Cards

A personal emergency survival kit for one’s children is a challenge to think through and build. They can be a useful tool for teaching your children about the proper use of the contents and on their proper employment. It is an adventure, in and of itself, to sit down and think through what a child or teenager needs if they become separated from their family in some way in the outdoors. There have been many stories over the years in which children became separated and lost from their families while they were enjoying time outdoors. Toddlers may not be adept in outdoor survival skills. However, teaching them early about why we carry a survival kit in our backpacks and giving them some of the simpler items to play with, like a howler whistle, helps them to begin to make the connection in their mind about the purpose of the kit itself. In much the same way one learns a trade skill through apprenticeship, we, parents, can teach our children about operating and surviving in a wilderness environment. This will empower them in adulthood to enjoy nature’s beauty, as well as, making responsible decisions about the stewardship of the environment.

 

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My son and I out on the AT in 2017

 

Hiking Tip # 3: Personal Safety, Risk Mitigation, and Traveling in Foreign Countries

January 28, 2017

uspassportrenewalsThe following story was chronicled on television recently and the full article on the tragic story of Aubrey Sacco’s disappearance in Nepal while hiking can be read at the following link:

http://www.backpacker.com/gone-girl-aubrey-saccos-disappearance-hiking-in-nepal/destinations/18334

The key safety lesson from Aubrey’s story is never go hiking in a foreign country with someone that you do not know in a high-risk location.  Practicing good personal protective measures and risk mitigation while hiking in a foreign country is necessary.  Aurbrey’s story reinforces the fact that American women are lucrative targets for kidnapping in foreign countries.  Therefore, if you decide to go on a hiking expedition in a foreign country with some friends, you should always be out on the trail with a partner from your group (a.k.a. a Battle Buddy, as the US Army calls them).  You should be wise about who you choose to be your hiking partner if it is only the two of you going out on the trail.

Another safety recommendation by experts is to have a communication plan. Before, you go on your hiking adventure, always have a plan to communicate with others on pre-determined times. For example, you agree to call your family or friends every two to three hours during the hike and once a day when not out on the trail. You should also have several ways to communicate (e.g. cell phone, text messaging, email, skype, etc.).  If you can afford one and the data plan to go with it, I would recommend that you take with you a satellite phone into a foreign country. That way if you have an emergency while hiking in a foreign country and have no cell phone coverage, you can still communicate with the local US Embassy or Consulate or with your family or friends in the United States who can assist on your behalf.

In regards to communication in a foreign country, always have the emergency number to the closest U.S Embassy or Consulate in the area you are going hiking. All United States Consulates and Embassies have a Unites States Marine Corps watch desk that is manned twenty-four hours a day, seven days a week, and 365 days a year. Keep their contact number on you and in your phone at all times and do not hesitate to call them if you need to get to the US Embassy or Consulate in an emergency.

Another safety consideration to remember is never give up your US Passport to anyone in a foreign country. Upon entry into a foreign country, the customs officials may take your passport for a few minutes to stamp it, but most foreign customs officials will return your passport.  If a customs official, law enforcement officer, military member, hotel clerk, or private citizen of a foreign country attempts to confiscate your passport, do not give it up.  Immediately make your way to the nearest US Consulate or Embassy for protection and report the incident.  Then as soon as possible, leave the country.

As we are discussing travel in a foreign country, always heed the Official Warnings published by the US State Department, even if one is published after you arrive in a particular country. Do not travel to countries where there is an active civil war going on or there are open hostile feelings towards Americans. I realize that there is a whole world of things to see and do in many countries of the world.  However, if you decide to travel in a country that has an Official Travel Warning published against it by US State Department, you are traveling at your own risk. Do not tempt fate at the expense of having a good time and broadening your cultural horizons. You may regret that decision later and cause your family and friends unnecessary worry or grief.

If you are planning to travel to a particular country, learn as much as you can about that country and its laws before you leave the United States. BBC News online is a great resource to learn about different countries and the latest news coming out of those countries. If it looks like the country of choice for your travels is going to slip into turmoil, cancel your plans to travel to that country.

The next safety and risk mitigation factor is to try to learn about the laws and social nuances of the country in which you plan to travel and hike.  For example, is it a law that hotels must keep the passports of foreigners at the front desk? Is it a law that one must dress a certain way? As a foreigner, are you libel for any accidental harm to local nationals or their property (e.g. in a vehicle accident)? In speaking of driving, memorize the international road sign symbols of the particular country you will be travelling in. Understand that you are in a foreign country and not in the United States, so law enforcement, liabilities, and legal procedures are not probably going to be in your favor. If the police in a foreign country detain you, you may be there awhile.  There is no such thing as due process and Miranda Rights in many countries and you are guilty until proven innocent. So be informed, be aware, and be careful.

Food and drinks in a foreign country can be a risk.  While in a foreign country, try not accept food or drinks from questionable origins. Many drugs are slipped to people through food and drinks (e.g. accepting an alcoholic beverage from someone that you did not see pour or prepare the drink). In some countries, standards for food preparation and handling are not the same as in the United States. This makes eating the local food a potential health risk. So be careful what you eat and where you eat.

When travelling in cities, do not go down alleys and streets that are not on your planned route. Understand where the high crime areas are and avoid them at all costs.

In closing, I have traveled in many different countries.  You can have fun and enjoy yourself in foreign countries.  Be smart, be wise, have a plan, and if it is against the law in America it is probably against the law in a foreign country. If you mind your business, and keep a low profile, you will find your time in a foreign country to memorable and enjoyable. Do not be reckless, foolish, or provocative and you will return to the United States with a mental backpack full of hiking memories and not regret.

Take care, have fun.

See you on the trail!

 

Hiking Tip # 2- Footwear

January 28, 2017

vasque-mens-breeze-gtx-hiking-bootOver the years of my US Army experience, I have had a constant battle to find the best fitting boot. Equally, I have had a hard time winning the war against blisters while on long marches. In my hiking endeavors, I have learned that footwear and blisters are a continuing saga. Because of my troubles, I have developed heal spurs and chronic plantar fasciitis. I have gleaned some practical wisdom in this particular area.  Therefore, I would like to share some of my tips regarding footwear.

The Hiking Boot:

Properly fitting footwear is critical to having a pleasant experience while out on the trail. Granted that most of you will not be lugging around a heavy military rucksack, thus, the wear and tear on your feet should not be as dramatic. As a small man at 64”, my feet can fit into a men’s 6.5 wide military issue boot and the men’s 6.5 wide Altama® Jungle Boot. I also can wear comfortably the men’s size 7, Danner® TFX military boot, and the men’s size 7 Matterhorn® military boot.  The US Army has lost the art of the other essentials to proper fitting footwear—lacing and socks. It has been rather difficult to find commercial hiking boots in the sizes that I require, but it is possible to find them.

One thing that I have learned about boots, that will see a lot of time in the field, is the importance of breaking them in. Boots that fit snug when you try them on in the store will loosen up after a few days weeks in the field. The more uneven and rough the terrain, the more quickly the boot will lose its stiff and snug fit. Humidity, sweat, and wetness will also be factors in how your boot will “break in”.  There are many different techniques to breaking in a new pair of hiking boots.  We will not outline them here, except to say, that the one most often heard is “soaking” the boot. This, however, only works with an all leather (not suede) boots with removable insoles. The military issue all-leather Altama® boot can be done this way, but most reading this article are not going to buy a boot such as this. By the way, I have experimented with this technique and it is not as effective as claimed, so I do not recommend it. With commercial hiking boots with Teflon or Teflon/Leather combination material, breaking them in will require just wearing them for a couple of days or weeks as your primary footwear.

Another factor concerning breaking in the hiking boot is whether it has a Gore-Tex® liner[1]. When you try Gore-Tex® boots on, your feet feel very snug in them. However, over time that “padded” feeling tends to lessen with the use of the boot. There are several reasons for this. First, Gore-Tex® does not have an extensively long lifecycle. Second, the principle material in Gore-Tex, latex[2], will lose its elasticity and other properties over time. Improper care of these type of boots will hasten this process also.  For example, the Gore-Tex liner in the two pairs of Matterhorn boots that I owned while serving in the US Army, lost their moisture wicking and heat retention properties after about 18 months of continuous use. While the sweat from my feet was still being drawn away from my socks and into the liner, in cold weather, the water retained in the Gore-Tex liner became cold and the cold was transferred back to my feet, thus defeating the reason that I bought them to begin with. I have noticed this same problem with my Gore-Tex lined Danner TFX boots as well. The Gore-Tex lined boots break in more quickly than an all-leather boot and do not require as much maintenance, but their fit can be deceiving if you are not experienced with Gore-Tex lined footwear.

Another factor in breaking in new hiking boots is discovered when lacing them up. Boots that have Gore-Tex liners will tend to lace up with a wider gap between each line of eyelets when new. Over time and with use, this gap will decrease between each row of eyelets as the boot material becomes more flexible and you are able to pull the laces tighter for a continuing snug fit.

By contrast, the most comfortable pair of boots that I have worn thus far, have been the all-leather military issue boot produced by Altama®. In the Army, these boots were called “cruit boots”.  I was not fond of these boots either, until I went through Infantry Officer training. However, after much use during the humid summer in Georgia, the leather softened and formed around my foot in a very comfortable manner. With the addition of Spenco® inserts and Vibram® soles, these boots were just as comfortable as my New Balance® Cross-training running shoes. To date, this has been the only boot that really fit me properly. With my growing problem with heel spurs, the Danner TFX boot became the next boot to fit me as good as my all-leather Altamas.  To get a proper fit for your hiking boots, it is best to get them fitted by a knowledgeable person at your favorite outfitter store, such as REI. The links below will help you also.

Another thing to be mindful of about foot wear is the maintenance of your footwear. All-leather boots require much more diligence in keeping them maintained than Teflon material boots. The video links below will provide a good over view on maintenance of footwear. Remember, that boots with Gore-Tex liners cannot be put into clothes dryers after washing. The heat will cause the Gore-Tex liner to break down. You must let Gore-Tex boots air dry. You do this by removing all of the laces and folding out the tongue in order to open up the boot to as much air as possible. If you have a 5 to 8 inch tall boot, then you will need to try to fold down the top of the boot if it is flexible enough. Otherwise, just leave it as is. With Teflon or Teflon/Suede combination material, you can use a stiff, but flexible brush to clean the outside. If your Teflon boots have a Gore-Tex liner, then you can wash them in clear, clean, cold water and let them air dry on your porch or in your washroom.

In caring for all-leather boots (not suede), you can wash them in lukewarm water with a mild dish soap on the outside. Use a soft brush or tooth brush to clean off any excessive dirt. Let them air dry as described above for the Gore-Tex lined boots. You will notice after a while that your leather boots will have some white, chalky residue appearing on the surface of the boot. Do not be alarmed, this is some of the leather salts coming to the surface after being wet. After the boots have dried, you can take saddle soap and clean off the white chalky stuff. If you try to rewash them, you will just get more of the leather salts coming to the surface. Rub the saddle soap into the leather very thoroughly, this includes the boot tongue and seams. After using the saddle soap, you can wipe the boot down with a damp cloth to get the excess soap off. Let the boot sit for a couple hours or for a day to let the soap work its way into the leather. When this process is complete then you can apply the boot polish or, in some cases, mink oil, as a way of waterproofing the boot. However, I have found if your boot leather is not waterproofed already with oils, like the Matterhorn Boot, then a boot polish is the first layer of defense in keeping the leather in top condition. You do not have to polish the boot to a high sheen, put the boot polish is critical in keeping the boot leather from deteriorating. So do not ignore its importance.

As we move on from the hiking boot itself, we will move on to the next important factor in footwear, lacing. I did not understand the importance of proper lacing of the boot until after completing my military career. Lacing is important because properly lacing your boots will reduce foot fatigue, and reduce or eliminate blisters.  Every once and a while, I would notice some Sergeant that would have a unique lacing pattern on his boots. One instance comes to mind, as I witnessed a sergeant with a big gap in the lacing pattern over the crook or bend of this foot. I asked him about it and he told me this was more comfortable to him than the ingrained left-over-right pattern that our Drill Sergeants pushed into our heads.  Since I started hiking, I have come to understand that some lacing patterns are better than others. Since everyone’s feet are different, I cannot recommend a particular lacing pattern here. Like with anything else, you will have to experiment to see which lacing pattern works for you and helps eliminate or reduce blisters on your feet. The video links below can help.

As we move on, let us talk about socks.  Socks are vital to the care and maintenance of your feet. Keeping your feet dry while hiking is important. Getting your feet dry after they have become wet while crossing a stream is equally important. The socks you are wearing are critical to ensuring these two objectives are met. The type of socks you are wearing will also determine whether or not you get blisters.  When it comes to socks, I have not had a good experience with any of them living up to their billings as being blister reducers. On the other hand, keeping my feet dry and warm has been a positive experience with socks. I see the socks and the hiking boot as a unit. Your socks and your hiking boots should be complimentary to each other. Remember, that all things require a little trial-and-error in order to come to the best combination for your feet. So talk to people, talk to experts, and judge the validity of the sock you are wearing on your own experience.

In conclusion, the hiking boot is always a fun and interesting topic to discuss. Remember when it comes to boots and the things related to your boots, what works for you is what is best for you. My feet are not your feet. So have fun with the links below.

See you on the trail!

Fitting Hiking Boots or Shoes

http://www.rei.com/learn/expert-advice/hiking-boots.html

http://www.backcountryedge.com/video-how-to-fit-a-hiking-boot.aspx

Hiking Boot Maintenance and Care

http://www.rei.com/learn/expert-advice/caring-hiking-boots.html

http://www.backcountryedge.com/video-how-to-care-for-hiking-boots-and-shoes.aspx

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4h-IR-IrfgQ (Dave Canterbury discusses care of hiking boots)

Lacing Hiking Boots or Shoes

http://www.backcountryedge.com/video-lacing-techniques-for-better-boot-fit.aspx#

http://www.backpacker.com/april_2003_gear_boot_lacing_tips/gear/5245

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cs-5-DkUJiE (REI Instructional Video)

Hiking Boot Socks

http://www.rei.com/learn/expert-advice/backpacking-socks.html

http://www.rei.com/learn/expert-advice/socks.html

http://www.backcountryedge.com/video-choosing-the-right-sock-for-hiking-and-backpacking.aspx

 

[1] http://www.gore-tex.com/remote/Satellite/content/our-fabrics; http://www.gore-tex.com/remote/Satellite/content/footwear-technologies#!

[2] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emulsion_polymerization