This Awesome Tool Can Help You Prevent Heat Injuries!

The prevention of heat injuries in hot weather conditions is crucial to enjoying the outdoors in the warmer months of the year. Do you have this awesome tool to help prevent heat injuries?

Do you have this awesome tool to help prevent heat injuries? March 20th marks the official change from winter to spring. Many parts of the nation are still reeling from the effects of the late winter storms. However, spring signals that warmer temperatures and the summer months will soon be here. The warmer temperatures of spring and summer bring with them their own unique weather-related injuries. Heat injuries are just as life-threatening as cold weather injuries. The three common heat injuries are heat cramps, heat exhaustion, and heat stroke. A valuable tool to keep in your kit is the Work-Rest and Water Consumption Table published by the U.S. Army Public Health Command (USAPHC).

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1. The Work to Rest Definition Section

work categories

The work to rest section of this card helps people understand how much work a person can do within a range of temperatures. There are three categories of work annotated on this instrument: Easy Work, Moderate Work, and Hard Work. Each section gives examples of the type of work that a person can do. The critical part of this section for outdoorsman are the walking distances and weights for carrying loads. The reason that this is critical for outdoorsman is that these annotations directly address their particular concerns. Hikers, backpackers, hunters, anglers, and others, who spend time outdoors in the spring and summer, will find that information crucial for their activities. The information annotated in this section comes as a result of decades of research to help soldiers stay healthy, as well as, function safely and effectively in hot weather conditions.

2. Heat Category Section

heat cats

The Heat Category Section is a unique numerical and color code system that the U.S. Army developed to alert supervisors of the potential for heat casualties based on the current temperatures. These heat categories are in use throughout the year. However, their relevance increases during the spring and summer months. The types are numbered one through five. Heat Categories 3, 4, and 5 are heat conditions with a higher risk for heat injuries. Heat Categories 1 and 2 have temperature conditions with the lowest risk for heat injuries. Nevertheless, remember that there is always a risk for a heat injury even at Heat Category 1.

3. Wet Bulb Globe Temperature Index (WBGT) Sectionwbgt cats

The next section on the card is the Wet Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGT) Index correlated to the levels of heat categories. The WBGT index offers a more comprehensive assessment of heat conditions than air temperature alone or the Heat Index. The definition of the WBGT Index is that it is a measure of the heat stress in direct sunlight, which takes into account: temperature, humidity, wind speed, sun angle and cloud cover (solar radiation) (https://www.weather.gov/tsa/wbgt). The critical point is heat stress attributable to exposure to direct sunlight.

Thus, the WBGT Index is an indicator of the accumulated effects of weather and heat conditions upon a person working in direct sunlight. Therefore, in Heat Category 4, people working in direct sunlight when WBGT conditions are between 88° and 88.9° are at a dangerous risk of having a heat injury (heat cramps, heat exhaustion, or heat stroke). One way to determine the WBGT for your area is to call your local weather station. Another way to learn the WBGT for your area is to purchase a WBGT Heat Stress Meter.
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4. Work-Rest Time Section


work-rest

The third section is the Work-Rest Time section. The division is a guide to inform people on the recommended level of work versus rest within the various heat categories. It is based on any given sixty minutes of outdoor activity. This section is one of the more controversial parts of the card. For example, if a unit is provided a training mission to conduct a dismounted movement in the desert in the summer, how is this work/rest cycle implemented without jeopardizing the mission or the health of the soldiers? The answer to that question goes into the required risk assessment of which commanders must sign.

However, outdoorsman, hikers, and backpackers are outside of the constraints of the military application of this chart. Therefore, it is best to follow the work-rest recommendations to increase avoidance of experiencing a heat injury. For example, under the Easy Work column, there are no limitations on easy work until Heat Category 5. Whereas, on the Hard Work column, the work-rest recommendation for Heat Category 1 is 40 minutes of work with 20 minutes of rest. Thus, hiking a trail rated as difficult would fall under the Hard Work column of the chart. Therefore, heed the work-rest cycle in hot weather conditions appropriate for the level of difficulty of your outdoor activity.

5. Water Intake Section


water intake

Another relevant section of this chart is the Water Intake section. The measurements on the Water Intake section are in quarts per hour. A cautionary note on the margin of this chart warns, “Hourly fluid intake should not exceed 1 ½ quarts. Daily fluid intake should not exceed 12 quarts.” These warnings are given for the prevention of the onset of overhydration or water intoxication which can lead to hyponatremia.

Hyponatremia is a dangerous heat-related injury caused by diluting the electrolytes in the bloodstream through too much water intake. In other words, too much water intake will cause your electrolytes to be depleted. Consequently, your body shuts down because the electricity needed to run your body cannot get from your brain to your organs. As a result, your internal organs begin to shut down. Therefore, watch your fluid intake in hot weather and do not over do it.

Final Thoughts

The prevention of heat injuries in hot weather conditions is crucial to enjoying the outdoors in the warmer months of the year. The Work-Rest Water Consumption Table is a valuable tool to employ in your outdoor planning activities during the spring and summer. Additionally, it is essential to read the marginal notes of this card as they help in defining terms and explaining annotations on the card. There is a more comprehensive document that contains this table. It is the Heat Illness Prevention (HIP) Pocket Guide (2018). The document also includes The Work-Rest Water Consumption Table, as well as, other useful information and tips to enable the prevention of heat injuries. Therefore, as you get ready for more outdoor activities in the coming months, remember to consult The Work-Rest Water Consumption Table before leaving on your next outdoor adventure.

An Outstanding Dry Bag Emergency Kit

An outstanding dry bag emergency kit is a great way to keep your emergency items. Here are the items that I chose for my modified dry bag emergency kit.

An outstanding dry bag emergency kit is a great way to keep your emergency items. The dry bag emergency kit is based on the concept of Dave Canterbury’s 10 Cs of Survivability. I first experimented with Dave’s concept in 2015. I found that his kit is a little bulky for the average backpacker. A more practical application of Dave’s concept for the backpacker is to buy smaller items and put them in a more flexible dry bag, such as the Osprey Ultralight Dry Sack. However, I did modify my dry bag emergency kit with the following items.

Dry Bag Emergency Items

The items for this bag were chosen for being durable, practical, dependable and affordable. It is important that whatever gear you choose for any survival kit or bag that it will not fail you when you need it the most. Thus, here are the items that I chose for my modified dry bag emergency kit based on Dave Canterbury’s 10 Cs of Survivability

Cutting Item

The following items are part of what I call your Tool Kit. Reliable tools are critical to ensuring your survival in a desperate situation. I have found that all of these items will fit in the dry bag emergency kit.  

  • Knife, Fixed Blade Morakniv, Bushcraft, 1 EA.
  • Knife, Folding Victorinox, Swiss Army, Farmer, 1 EA.
  • Multitool Leatherman Wave, 1 EA.
  • Saw, Folding Bahco Laplander Saw, 1 EA.

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Combustion Item

Moreover, not only are tools critical to your being able to do survival tasks in the field, you also need to address one of the core survival categories: fire. The following items make up what I call my Fire Kit. All of these items will fit in the dry bag emergency kit. You may want to place all of these items in a small pouch that will go into the dry bag.

  • Lighter, Disposable Bic® Lighter, 1 EA.
  • Cubes, Wet Fire Wet Fire, 5 EA.
  • Rod, Ferro Titan Fire Striker, 1 EA.

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Covering Item

The next category that is necessary for survival is shelter. The following items are what I call the Shelter Kit. In Dave’s video presentation of his 10 Cs of Survivability, he takes most of these items and rolls them up into the emergency blanket so that they will fit in the dry bag. I have experimented with this configuration and it will fit easily in the dry bag.

  • Blanket, Emergency SOL Heavy Duty Emergency Blanket, 1 EA.
  • Liner, Drum, 3mil, 55 gal. Toughbag Drum Liner, 2 EA.
  • Stakes, Tent MSR Tent Stakes, 5 EA.

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Container Item

The next the essential items for the dry bag emergency kit are what I call the Water Kit. The water kit helps you to procure and process water in the field. Obtaining water is one of the critical tasks that you need to do in order to live in a survival situation. The items listed here will help with get drinkable water in the outdoors.

  • Bottle, Stainless Steel, Single-Walled Klean Kanteen, 40 oz., 1 EA.
  • Cup, Nesting GSI Glacier 24 oz Cup, 1 EA.
  • Filter, Water Straw Sawyer Mini Filter, 1 EA.
  • Tablets, Water Treatment MSR Aqua Tabs, 30 pk., 1 PK.
  • Note: water treatment/filter items can go inside of the water bottle

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Cordage

Cordage is an essential part of any emergency or survival kit. Most of the experts agree that bank line or paracord should be part of any kit. Cordage allows for food procurement (fishing/trapping), shelter construction, primitive weapons (slings/bows), and in extreme circumstances can be used for first aid (lashing splints/sutures), as well as gear and clothing repair. 

  • Paracord, 550 MILSPEC, 50-100 ft.
  • Bankline, 50 ft.-1 Spool
  • Kevlar Line, 25 ft.-1 Roll

 

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These first five categories are considered the essential items that are required to enable any survival situation. Thus, the following five categories are additional considerations to help with other important survival tasks. 

Cotton Item

Cotton is a versatile element in any survival or emergency kit. Cotton cloth allows for use in first aid (bandages/slings), tinder material for fire making (charred cloth), water collection (absorbing dew/water filtering), or communication if a blaze orange material (trail marking/signal flag). 

  • Bandana Levi’s Bandanas, 1 EA.
  • Bandage, Triangular USGI Military Cravat, 1 EA.

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Cargo Tape

Cargo tape or duct tape is a great item to keep in a survival kit. Cargo tape can function effectively as tinder for fire starting, gear and clothing repair, first aid, and other uses depending on a person’s skill level. 

Tape, Cargo Gorilla Tape, 1 in., 1 Roll

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Candling  Device

A candling device is anything that can be used to shine light like a flashlight or headlamp. Candling devices can also function as emergency signals as night. 

  • Headlamp Petzl Bindi Headlamp, 1 EA.

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Compass

A compass is a critical item in a survival or emergency kit. A compass enables land navigation over long distances. It can also be used as a signaling device if it has a mirrored function to its construction. 

  • Compass, Base Plate w/Sighting Mirror K&R Alpin Compass, 1 EA.

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Canvas Needle

The canvas needle is sometimes called a sail needle. The needle functions in the field as part of your sewing kit. The needle can be magnetized to construct a primitive compass. It is useful for gear repair and first aid as well. 

  • Needle, Large, Canvas, Sail Vanguard Marine Sewing Kit, 1 EA.

 

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The final five categories offer capabilities that will enhance a person’s survival chances. Therefore, they are considered to be the next level of emergency gear that will compliment the first five categories. Yet, Dave’s dry bag survival kit is just a start for your survival needs in the field. As such, some additional considerations are offered as optional items to consider if you wish to expand beyond the basic dry bag survival kit. 

Additional Considerations Beyond the Dry Bag

Finally, these additional emergency kit items are added here for you to consider beyond the dry bag emergency kit. Remember that the dry bag carries only the basic essential items that will help you survive in the outdoors. The following items can be part of your larger emergency bag (BOB, Go Bag, GHB, INCH, 72 Hr. Emergency Bag).

Sleeping or Bedding Kit

The following sleeping items are what I call my Sleeping Kit. These will not fit into the 10 or 15 liter dry bag. However, I have added them here as a consideration.

  • Bivy, Emergency SOL Emergency Bivy, 1 EA.
  • Bivy, Gore-Tex Tennier Woodland Bivy, 1 EA.
  • Bag, Sleeping Snugpak Jungle Sleeping Bag, 1 EA.
  • Pad, Sleeping Mat USGI Sleeping Mat, 1 EA.

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Food Kit Pouch

  • Freeze Dried Mountain House Food Pouch, 3 EA.
  • Bars, Energy Cliff Bar Energy Bar, 3 EA.
  • Meat, Dried Jerky Jack Links Beef Jerky, 1 EA.

mountain-house-food

First Aid 

  • First Aid Kit, General Purpose Adventure Medical Kits 1.0, 1 EA.
  • Kit, First Aid, Trauma US Army IFAK, 1 EA.

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Communications 

  • Whistle, Emergency SOL Emergency Howler Whistle, 1 EA.

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Food Procurement Kit

  • Kit, Fishing, Emergency Best Glide ASE Emergency Fishing Kit, 1 EA.

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Self-Defense Kit

  • Spray, Pepper Sabre Pepper Spray, 1 EA.
  • Sling Shot

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Clothing Needs

Clothing is considered your first level of shelter based on the concept that your clothing insulates one from the affects of body heat loss. Therefore, the type and quality of the clothing is an essential part of your emergency gear considerations.

  • 1 Day Change of Clothes

    • Socks, Wool Omni Wool Boot Socks. 1 PR.
    • Shirt, Underwear, T-Shirt Coolmax T-Shirt, 1 EA.
    • Trousers, Hiking/Travel Fjallraven Vidda Pro Trousers Regular Solid Sandstone, 1 EA.
    • Shirt, Hiking/Travel Fjallraven Greenland Shirt, 1 EA.
    • Gloves, Work Petzl K53 Gloves, 1 PR.

 

  • Seasonal Gear (Cold Weather)

    • Jacket, Fleece Columbia Fleece Jacket, 1 EA.
    • Gloves, Winter, Gore-Tex Carhartt Waterproof Work Gloves, 1 PR.
    • Scarf, Wool Winter Wool Scarf, 1 EA.
    • Cap, Wool, Watch Army Universe Wool Watch Cap, 1 EA.
    • Baselayer Bottom Meriwool Baselayer Bottoms, 1 EA.
    • Baselayer Top Meriwool Baselayer Top, 1 EA.

 

  • Seasonal Gear (Wet Weather)

    • Jacket, Rain, Packable Columbia Rain Jacket, 1 EA.
    • Trouser, Rain, Packable Columbia Rain Pants, 1 EA.

8 Tips For Trekking On Unfamiliar Terrain

There are 8 tips for trekking on unfamiliar terrain to consider when planning your next outdoor adventure. Even the well-experienced hikers can get lost and in trouble on the trail just as quickly as novices.

There are 8 tips for trekking on unfamiliar terrain to consider when planning your next outdoor adventure. An Associated Press story about a hiker from the state of Virginia who was found dead after going missing on a day hike in Mexico on December 30, 2014 provides some helpful insights on hiking on unfamiliar terrain.

First, the positive aspects of the story inform us that person did have a communication plan. He sent a selfie picture to his wife and then a couple of hours later sent a text message. This was probably very helpful information that aided the Mexican Search and Rescue (SAR) teams find his body.

However, two important pieces of information from this article that were revealed was that the man did not have any survival training and that he had gotten lost while on day hikes in his past. The story goes on to relate that he was able to self-recover from being lost on previous occasions; however, this time he was in a foreign country and navigating on unfamiliar terrain. What are some key learning elements from this story regarding hiking on unfamiliar terrain whether you are hiking in the United States or abroad?

1. Establish A Plan

First, have a plan. That means you need to have a plan for conducting your hike from start to finish. Planning your hike must involve determining your route, your expected time of return to your starting point, establishing way points on your GPS if you are using one. There should be an integration of an emergency plan should you get lost or injured while hiking. You should ensure that you have adequate food and water for the area, time on the trail, and time of year. Now the question arises as to how you plan the actual hike upon terrain upon in which you have never traversed.

2. Conduct A Map Reconnaissance

The first step in planning a hike on unfamiliar terrain is to consult a map. With the advent of iPads, Tablets, and GPS devices, Google Earth, topographic terrain applications are available for most of these devices. If you cannot afford the electronic stuff, there are paper maps that can be purchased. If you cannot find a map that covers your area of interest prior to your trip, you can buy a map at your intended location once you have arrived. Another way to get information on the terrain upon which you are unfamiliar is to do an internet search. There is no reason why you cannot get some idea of the terrain you wish to hike if you are hiking anywhere in North America or Europe. Asia, Central and South America, and Africa may present some challenges in regards to obtaining information, but it is not impossible.

3. Conduct A Risk Assessment

Conducting a risk assessment of your planned outdoor adventure is critical to a safe hike. It is essential to understand the risks of the area and incorporate risk mitigation into your plan. There are several ways to conduct a risk assessment. The simplest is to take a piece of paper and list the risks, such as dehydration, then under the risk, list ways to mitigate or control that risk, such as carrying a water treatment kit. The U.S. Army Composite Risk Management Worksheet is a useful tool for conducting a risk assessment for planning a backpacking trip on unfamiliar terrain.

4. Identify The Terrain Hazards

Generally, there are two types of hazards to consider on any hike, man-made and naturally occurring risks.

Natural Hazards

The naturally occurring hazards are the most likely to be encountered.  Naturally occurring hazards encompass wild life, dangerous plants and insects, and weather. Your local bookstore, library, and outfitter store can provide information on the natural hazards pertaining to the area in which you desire to hike. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) website can provide accurate weather assessments for the area you wish to hike in the United States. 

Man-made Hazards

Another risk to consider when hiking over unfamiliar terrain are the man-made hazards that may exist on your route. Man-made hazards can be construction areas, logging areas, mining areas, or places of war, insurrection, or high crime areas. A hiker from North Carolina was recently killed by members of a drug cartel while he was hiking in Mexico. His story illustrates the importance of understanding the man-made hazards on a particular hike. 

Travel Restrictions and Warnings

Another important aspect about man-made hazards to consider for hiking in foreign countries is to check and heed the warning and travel restrictions published by the U.S. State Department. Sometimes tourists in foreign country like to take a treks away from the places that are established for tourists. It is critical to understand and heed the travel restrictions issued by the U.S. State Department. We do not have perfect knowledge of any particular foreign area. Therefore, it is imperative to integrate our government’s travel restrictions and warnings into any trek that will transpire in a foreign country. 

5. Establish and Publish An Emergency Plan

Another planning consideration in regards to hiking on unfamiliar terrain is to plan for emergencies. I have watched several documentaries about mountain climbing, hiking, and endurance races. Most of the unfortunate incidences discussed in these programs center on the fact that the individuals affected were not prepared for emergencies. I have also read several news stories over the last few months where hikers had to be rescued who were lost or injured while hiking. Their testimony was that they were not anticipating any problems on their hike. The take away principle from the experiences of others is always prepare for the worst scenario that can happen on your hike. Never go on a hike, regardless of length of time or distance without an emergency plan.

6. Incorporate A Personal Emergency Survival Kit

Your emergency plan should incorporate a personal emergency survival kit. The kit should address the basic principles of survival: Shelter, Food, Fire, and Hydration. The best survival kit is the one that you develop on your own. There are several resources available that will help you understand how to build your own kit. Your personal survival kit should be tailored for your particular hike and for the time of the year in which you will be backpacking. The challenge for taking emergency survival gear into foreign countries for backpacking is the aspect of the survival knife. Consult the laws of the country in which you desire to travel regarding knives and multi-tools. It may be that you have to buy one of these items after you arrive in the country of your destination. There are some seasonal aspects to consider when building your survival kit.

 7. Incorporate Seasonal Gear

One aspect of risk mitigation for trekking on unfamiliar terrain is to understand and incorporate seasonal gear into your packing list. You can not pack for every single contingency. Your backpack will be too heavy to carry if you try. Therefore, it is important to tailor your packing for the particular season and kind of terrain upon you will trek. This is called, modularity. 

Summer/Fall Gear Considerations

At a minimum your backpack should have for a summer or early fall hike the following items: rain gear, such as a waterproof tarp or H2O proof outerwear. Wet weather will be the one weather hazard that you will encounter in most locations in the summer or fall in North America or Europe. Therefore, in addition to the basic survival kit items, consider some type of rain gear to put in your backpack. The temperatures will fluctuate as the earth transitions from summer to fall. It is beneficial to include some kind of light to medium cold weather gear, such as, a packable jacket and fleece cap. The Columbia Watertight II Jacket (Packable) is a great example of raingear for backpacking. 

Winter/Spring Gear Considerations

Hiking in the winter to early spring brings its own weather risks. Cold weather gear should be part of your packing list if you are trekking during this time of the year. One type of winter gear to bring on a hike in the winter are snowshoes. The MSR EVO Ascent Snowshoes are an example of snowshoes for hiking. Hand and Body warmers should be a consideration for your packing list. Winter outerwear such as the Columbia Alpine Action Jacket with Omni-Heat technology is the kind of winter gear to consider putting on your packing list. 

8. Get Formal Survival Training

Another aspect of the news article mentioned above was that the wife of the hiker reported that he did not have any survival training. This is unfortunate. As many resources, websites, and television programs that are available that cover survival, nobody should be without some kind of knowledge of the basics of survival.

If you have never had any training on survival techniques in the wilderness, I would recommend that you conduct an internet search of some good videos that give sound instruction on such important information as building shelters, starting fires, etc. The best information for those not familiar with survival techniques are Les Stroud’s Survivorman video series. Dave Canterbury and his Pathfinder School provide good instructional videos also.

If you can afford it, take a survival course before your next hike. There are four places of instruction that I would recommend: Dave Canterbury’s Pathfinder School , Cody Lundin’s Aboriginal Living Skills School , ESEE Knives’-Randal’s Adventure and Training School of Survival , and the Sigma 3 Survival School. Some of these schools have ex-military veterans as instructors, who have experience and expertise in training survival techniques. Having an understanding of survival basics and some, familiarity on how to use basic survival equipment, such as an individual first aid kit, is better than no knowledge at all.

Concluding Thoughts

In conclusion, hiking on unfamiliar terrain can be an exciting experience; however, failure to plan and anticipate problems increases the chances of a good hike turning bad. Stay on well-used paths and do not venture off into areas for a great selfie or a great view of the scenery. Remember that even the well-experienced hikers can get lost and in trouble on the trail just as quickly as novices. Therefore, stay informed, stay safe, have a plan, and enjoy your hike.
See you on the trail!

Top 5 Emergency Tools To Keep In Your Car For Winter

The winter months are almost here.Therefore, as we take a look at our vehicle emergency kits, there some the basic principles that should help you decide what to store in your vehicle. Afterward, we will discuss the top five tools that you should keep in your car for the winter months.

The winter months are almost here. The snow is already beginning to fall in some parts of our nation. It is a good idea to keep an emergency kit in your vehicle. Those who live in New England and the Upper Midwest already know the value of keeping some essential survival items and tools in their cars. Snow and ice can keep your afternoon drive home from work from being smooth. However, for those who live in mild climates, sub-zero temperatures in the winter can be a safety hazard, even on a clear day. Therefore, as we take a look at our vehicle emergency kits, there some the basic principles that should help you decide what to store in your vehicle. Afterward, we will discuss the top five tools that you should keep in your car for the winter months.

Principles For Choosing Emergency Tools

Principle # 1: Experience

The first principle for choosing what tools to store in your vehicle is your experience with the devices themselves. There are many articles, websites, and YouTube® videos that will give advice on emergency tools for your car. However, the question that should be asked is how much experience do you have with those tools? If you have no experience with vehicle maintenance then keeping a mechanic’s toolbox in your care is overkill. Thus, your experience should govern the types and quantities of tools that you keep in your car.

Principle # 2: Historic Winter Climate In Your Location

The second principle that should influence what you keep in your car is the kind of winters that you experience in your location. For example, there are places in the southwest that get snow, but blizzards are rare. By contrast, in the upper Midwest, blizzards and below-zero temperatures are an annual event. Thus, a person living in the southwest may not need to carry a pair of snowshoes in their car as a might a person living in Montana. Therefore, with these principles in mind, what are the top 5 emergency tools that one should keep in their vehicle during the winter?

Emergency Tools To Keep In Your Car

1. Tire Chains

The first emergency tool that should be held in your car at all times is a good set of tire chains. Tire chains are not technically a “tool.” However, they will make your chances of getting home in winter weather more possible. It is important to remember that tire chains wear out over time. The links can become broken, or the fastening clasps can become broken. Therefore, remember to keep your tire chains maintained and usable at all times.

2. Highway Flares

Road flares have become more sophisticated over the years. There are many types of road flares sold in the local auto parts store. Some people choose to purchase the electronic flares that use flashing LED lights. These types of flares are great for the urban commute home in a major city. However, out on the freeway to visit relatives for Christmas, is not the place for electronic flares. The kinds of road-flares to store in your car for the winter are those the stick kind that light on fire and burn a reddish, orange flame. These are a multi-use item. Not only are they useful for signaling for help, but they are also great for starting fires in an emergency.

A Word of Caution

Road Flares can be a valuable asset in the winter. However, there is always a risk of a burn injury with their use. Be careful when using them and comply with all safety instructions related to their storage, ignition, employment, and disposal.

3. Pioneer Tool Kit

A Pioneer Tool Kit is a kit that consists of three tools: a shovel, ax, and pick mattock. Truckers and off-road enthusiasts keep these tools stored on their vehicles. Their primary use is to dig out a stuck car. However, in an emergency situation in the winter, they can be used to build a shelter or process firewood. The name of this tool set comes from the frontier days when these types of items were carried on covered wagons.
The full-sized shovel, ax, and mattock are suitable for the large SUVs, RVs, and the mid-sized pickup trucks. However, there are smaller versions of these tools that are available at your local hardware store that fit comfortably in smaller vehicles. For example, you may have to substitute a full-sized ax for a camp hatchet. Additionally, you may want to store these tools in a bag. The regular military duffle bag will hold the standard size tools. A smaller heavy duty bag made of nylon or Cordura will keep the smaller version of the pioneer tools. The trunk or storage space in your vehicle will determine the size of your tools and storage bag.

Pioneer Tool Kit Items:

4. Towing Strap

A towing strap made of heavy-duty nylon is an invaluable tool to keep your vehicle. The towing strap is also a multi-use item in an emergency. The standard use of the towing strap is to help another car pull a car out of a rut or ditch. However, the towing strap can be used in the construction of improvised snow shows or mukluks. The towing strap should be considered part of your cordage considerations as you think about your emergency kit for your car.

5. Jumper Cables

It is amazing how many people do not have a set of jumper cables in their vehicles. This item used to be a standard item to carry in your car. However, because of the sophistication of the newer cars, the use of jumper cables can be problematic. For example, in some vehicles, the battery is not in the engine compartment but in some other location on the car. Yet, despite these concerns, a quality set of jumper cables are an invaluable asset to store in your car in the winter. Jumper cables can be used for emergency cordage and other emergency tasks.

A Word of Caution

There is always a hazard for an electrical shock when jumper cables are attached to the batter or charging point on your vehicle. Be careful to use them in compliance with all safety instructions relating to the use of jumper cables.

Conclusion

These essential items are critical to your successful survival if stranded off the road in winter. Winter is as dangerous climate as Summer. The level of snow and ice coupled with below-zero temperatures and wind are the perfect conditions for a winter survival emergency away from home. Therefore, keep your vehicle adequately set up to meet emergency situations in the winter. An excellent vehicle survival kit and emergency tools are lifesavers in a stranded situation. Thus, choose your emergency kit items and tools wisely in preparation for the winter.

Handy Information For Backpacking

June 23, 2018

Here are some handy pieces of information to add to your backpacking packing list: Smart Cards. I created three smart cards based on information that I gleaned online and from other sources. I hope that you find these helpful. 

This is my Hot Weather Card

My Summer Smart Card

This is my Cold Weather Card

My Cold WX Card

This is my Map Reading Helps Card

My Map Card

 

Personal Emergency or Survival Kits for Children

January 25, 2018
The camping, fishing, hiking, and backpacking season will soon be upon us. Many people will begin to head outdoors during the Spring and Summer. It is a wonderful time for families to take advantage of nature’s beauty. Children will be taken out on the trails, lakes, and campsites across America by their parents. In such cases, some parents may assess that there is a need to put an emergency or survival kit into their children’s backpacks.

When constructing emergency kits for my children’s backpacks, there are concerns that arise when trying to decide what contents should be inside of their kits. Many of the suggested contents for personal emergency kits are made for adult considerations. One of the most common starting points for personal emergency kit construction is the SAS Survival Handbook by Lofty Wiseman. It is obvious that many of the contents suggested by Wiseman are not relevant for children when considered from a parental perspective. For example, Wiseman’s kit contents are as follows:
1. Matches
2. Candle
3. Flint
4. Magnifying Glass
5. Needles/Thread
6. Fish hooks/line
7. Compass
8. Beta Light
9. Snare Wire
10. Wire Saw
11. Medical Kit (suggested contents, tailor to personal needs)
a. Pain Relievers
b. Gastrointestinal Medicine
c. Antibiotic Medicine
d. Allergy Relievers
e. Water Purification Tabs
f. Anti-Malaria Tablets
g. Potassium Permanganate
h. Surgical Blades
i. Butterfly Sutures
j. Band Aids (Plasters)
12. Condom

Furthermore, it must be remembered that Wiseman’s personal emergency kit contents are based on legacy or dated technology from the Cold War or they are unique to the British Army, yet the concepts or principles are still relevant today. For example, beta lights (phosphorescent/tritium lights) are available for purchase but mini-chemlights are a more accessible source to the average consumer. Moreover, the items that he suggests in his kits are based on military operations and military survival training. They address situations in which pilots or ground personnel find themselves in a survival situation on the battlefield due to being separated from friendly forces. Furthermore, as the name implies, survival or emergency kits are an item of last resort only to be employed in the most desperate situations, where survival may not be possible without their use. How can a survival tin or pouch that is based on the concepts of the SAS-type survival tin be made applicable for use by children or teenagers?

First, when constructing a Lofty Wiseman SAS-type survival tin or pouch for your children, some discernment, wisdom, and common sense needs to be applied to the task. For example, a tritium light or mini-chemlight would be a great item in a survival kit for an adult or teenager; however, they could be a choking hazard for younger children. Choking hazards are a concern, as well, with other small items such as button compasses, mini ferro rods, and small magnifying glasses. Therefore, include survival items in the tin that are consistent with your children’s maturity and assessed capabilities for responsible behavior. You do not want to have a preventable emergency with your children while enjoying the outdoors.

Second, a concern when considering items for an emergency survival tin for your children is the fragility or durability of the contents. For example, when considering how to address lighting, it is best to use some type of micro flashlight that is one piece, can be turned on with a simple pressure switch, and are waterproof. Micro flashlights that have to be twisted to turn on or off are prone to being disassembled by curious toddlers or younger children. An example of this type of flashlight would be the Mini-Mag. Once this type of flashlight is taken apart in the field, parts will get lost, broken, or possibly swallowed. The flashlight will then be rendered useless, thus, defeating the purpose for it in the tin. Glass signal mirrors can become cracked or broken. Therefore, a single, stainless steel micro signal mirror or polished military dog tag would be a better item in a survival kit for children.

Third, another concern when considering items for an emergency tin or pouch for your children are cutting injuries. Those of us with children have the experience of our younger children getting a dinner knife or scissors out of a kitchen drawer in a moment when our attention is distracted. Thus, we tend to put such items out of reach for their own safety to prevent unnecessary injury or harm. This safety concern will also influence what kinds of cutting devices are in a survival kit for your children. One item that is universal for any kind of survival kit is a knife. However, putting a knife in your children’s survival kit should only be done with the utmost of care and consideration of their experience and capabilities for safe and responsible behavior regardless of their age. This same principle should also drive decisions about placing fishing or sewing items in their kits.

As we contemplate how to construct one of these personal emergency kits for our children, what are some items to consider? In other words, what kinds of item did I consider when constructing a personal emergency survival kit for my children? The following are some suggested items for a children’s personal emergency survival kit:

1. Container Options:
o Tin, Small
o Tin, Large
o Pouch
o Dry Box
o aLokSak Bag

2. Cutting Device:
o Gerber LST Ultralight Knife, Fine Edge

3. Cordage:
o 15’ Mil Spec Survival Cord, MIL-C-5040 Type 1A

4. Signaling Device:
o S.O.L. Slim Rescue Howler Whistle
o S.O.L. Micro Signaling Mirror

5. Lighting Device:
o Micro Light Keychain Mini Flashlight

6. Navigation:
o Button Compass

7. Fire Making:
o Bic Mini Lighter
o 2 x Tender Quick Tab

8. Food Procurement:
o 25’ Braided Fishing Line wrapped around a Floss Bobbin
o Basic Fishing Kit
o P-51 Military Can Opener
o Note: Snare wire is not included in my children’s kit because setting up snares and traps is an advanced skill of which they are unfamiliar at this point. The snare wire can be added in later or placed in a larger kit.

9. Equipment Repair:
o 1” Duct Tape wrapped around Floss Bobbin
o 3 x Safety Pins, Stainless Steel

10. First Aid:
o 1 x Bandage Strip, Large
o 1 x Bandage Strip, Medium
o 2 x Bandage, Butterfly
o 2 x Alcohol Wipes (Can be used for fire starting also)
o 2 x Antibiotic Ointment, packs

11. Communication:
o Golf Pencil
o 2 x Mini Index Cards

A personal emergency survival kit for one’s children is a challenge to think through and build. They can be a useful tool for teaching your children about the proper use of the contents and on their proper employment. It is an adventure, in and of itself, to sit down and think through what a child or teenager needs if they become separated from their family in some way in the outdoors. There have been many stories over the years in which children became separated and lost from their families while they were enjoying time outdoors. Toddlers may not be adept in outdoor survival skills. However, teaching them early about why we carry a survival kit in our backpacks and giving them some of the simpler items to play with, like a howler whistle, helps them to begin to make the connection in their mind about the purpose of the kit itself. In much the same way one learns a trade skill through apprenticeship, we, parents, can teach our children about operating and surviving in a wilderness environment. This will empower them in adulthood to enjoy nature’s beauty, as well as, making responsible decisions about the stewardship of the environment.

 

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My son and I out on the AT in 2017